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Get access to the full version of this article. View access options below. You previously purchased this article through ReadCube. Institutional Login. Log in to Wiley Online Library. Purchase Instant Access. View Preview. Learn more Check out. Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure. Previous Figure Next Figure. Hence it follows that the only primal body is the pyramid, and not one of the others, since by their nature they are outdistanced by it in coming into being. But for us it will suffice to acquire the knowledge in brief form.

Since air is formed when fire is extinguished, and when rarefied again gives off fire out of itself, we must observe the behaviour of each of the generative elements and their transmutations. Therefore one element of air is produced from two corpuscles of fire combined and united ; and that of air again, when divided, is separated into two corpuscles of fire, and again, when compressed and condensed, it goes off into the form of water. Moralia, d. For he insists that all the five shall not undergo construction at the same time, but the simplest always, which requires the least trouble to construct, shall first issue forth into being.

Then, as a corollary to this, and not conflicting with it, he lays down the principle that not all matter brings forth the simplest and most rudimentary form first, but that sometimes the ponderous and complex forms, in the time of their coming into being, are earlier in arising out of matter.

But apart from this, five bodies having been postulated as primary, and on the strength of this the number of worlds being put as the same, he adduces probability with reference to four only ; the cube he has taken off the board, as if he were playing a game with counters, since, because of its nature, it cannot transmute itself into them nor confer upon them the power of transmutation into itself, inasmuch as the triangles are not homologous triangles.

For in the others the common triangle which underlies them all is the half-triangle ; but in this, and peculiar to it alone, is the isosceles triangle, which makes no convergence towards the other nor any conjunction that would unify the two. I leave out of account the fact that they make the element of the dodecahedron, as it is called, something else and not that scalene from which Plato constructs the pyramid and the octahedron and the icosahedron.

I repeat, therefore, what I said at the beginning, that if two natures be postulated, one evident to the senses, subject to change in creation and dissolution, carried now here now there, while the other is essentially conceptual and always remains the same, it is a dreadful thing that, while the conceptual nature has been parcelled out and has variety within itself, we should feel indignant and annoyed if anyone does not leave the corporeal and passive nature as a unity knit together and converging upon itself, but separates and parts it.

For it is surely fitting that things permanent and divine should hold more closely together and escape, so far as may be, all segmentation and separation. But even on these the power of Differentiation has laid its hand and has wrought in things conceptual dissimilarities in reasons and ideas, which are vaster than the separations in location.

Granted, then, that these five exist, it is not surprising if each of these five corporeal elements has been made into a copy and image of each of them respectively, not unmixed and unalloyed, but it is because of the fact that each of them participates most in its corresponding faculty. The cube is patently a body related to rest because of the security and stability of its plane surfaces. In the pyramid everybody may note its fiery and restless quality in the simplicity of its sides and the acuteness of its angles.

The nature of the dodecahedron, which is comprehensive enough to include the other figures, may well seem to be a model with reference to all corporeal being. Of the remaining two, the icosahedron shares in the nature of Differentiation mostly, and the octahedron in that of Identity. For this reason the octahedron contributed air, which in a single form holds all being in its embrace, and the icosahedron water, which by admixture assumes the greatest variety of qualities.

If, therefore, Nature demands an equal distribution in all things, there is a reasonable probability that the worlds which have been created are neither more nor less in number than the patterns, so that each pattern in each world may have the leading rank and power just as it has acquired it in the construction of the primary bodies. Now these first principles make their appearance at the beginning in connexion with number; rather, however, larger amounts are not number at all unless the number one, created from the illimitability of infinity, like a form of matter, cuts off more on one side and less on the other.

Then, in fact, any of the larger amounts becomes number through being delimited by the number one. But if the number one be done away with, once more the indeterminate duality throws all into confusion, and makes it to be without rhythm, bounds, or measure. Inasmuch as form is not the doing away with matter, but a shaping and ordering of the underlying matter, it needs must be that both these first principles be existent in number, and from this has arisen the first and greatest divergence and dissimilarity.

For the indeterminate first principle is the creator of the even, and the better one of the odd. So when the twro were paired, the better one prevailed over the indeterminate as it was dividing the corporeal and checked it; and when matter was being distributed to the two, it set unity in the middle and did not allow the whole to be divided into two parts, but there has been created a number of worlds by differentiation of the indeterminate and by its being carried in varying directions ; yet the power of Identity and Limitation has had the effect of making that number odd, but the kind of odd that did not permit Nature to progress beyond what is best.

If the number one were unalloyed and pure, matter would not have any separation at all ; but since it has been combined with the dividing power of duality, it has had to submit to being cut up and divided, but there it stopped, the even being overpowered by the odd. For example, she has allotted to ourselves five senses and five parts to the soul 7 : physical growth, perception, appetite, fortitude, and reason; also five fingers on each hand, and the most fertile seed when it is divided five times, for there is no record that a woman ever had more than five children together at one birth.

Five, too, are the orbits of the planets, if the Sun and Venus and Mercury follow the same course. For example, if fire is generated from air by the breaking up of the octahedron and its resolution into pyramids, or again if air is generated from fire by its being forced together and compressed into an octahedron, it is not possible for it to stay where it was before, but it escapes and is carried to some other place, forcing its way out and contending against anything that blocks its course or keeps it back.

Thus, when matter was in that state in which, in all probability, is the universe from which God is absent, the first five properties, having tendencies of their own, were at once carried in different directions, not being completely or absolutely separated, because, when all things were amalgamated, the inferior always followed the superior in spite of Nature. Then, after establishing Reason in each as a governor and guardian, he creatjed as many worlds as the existing primal bodies.

Let this, then, be an offering for the gratification of Plato on Ammonius's account, but as for myself, I should not venture to assert regarding the number of wbrlds that they are just so many ; but the opinion that sets their number at more than one, and yet not infinite, but limited in amount, I regard as no more irrational than either of the others, when I observe the dispersiveness and divisibility implicit by nature in Matter, and that it neither abides as a unit nor is permitted by Reason to progress to infinity.

For it is not possible to hold that the desertion by the demigods is the reason for the silence of the oracles unless we are convinced as to the manner in which the demigods, by having the oracles in their charge and by their presence there, make them active and articulate. To my mind the difference between man and man in acting tragedy or comedy is the difference between soul and soul arrayed in a body suitable for its present life.

It is, therefore, not at all unreasonable or even marvellous that souls meeting souls should create in them impressions of the future, exactly as we do not convey all our information to one another through the spoken word, but by writing also, or merely by a touch or a glance, we give much information about what has come to pass and intimation of what is to come. Unless it be, Lamprias, that you have another story to tell.

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For not long ago a rumour reached us about your having had a long talk on these subjects with strangers at Lebadeia, but the man who told of it could recall none of it with exactness. For if the souls which have been severed from a body, or have had no part with one at all, are demigods according to you and the divine Hesiod, 1 Holy dwellers on earth and the guardian spirits of mortals, why deprive souls in bodies of that power by virtue of which the demigods possess the natural faculty of knowing and revealing future events before they happen?

For it is not likely that any power or portion accrues to souls when they have left the body, if they did not possess them before ; but the souls always possess them ; only they possess them to a slight degree while conjoined with the body, some of them being completely imperceptible and hidden, others weak and dim, and about as ineffectual and slow in operation as persons that try to see in a fog or to move about in water, and requiring much nursing and restoring of the functions that properly belong to them and the removal and clearing away of the covering which hides them.

We ought not to feel surprised or incredulous at this when we see in the soul, though we see naught else, that faculty which is the complement of prophecy, and which we call memory, and how great an achievement is displayed in preserving and guarding the past, or rather what has been the present, since nothing of all that has come to pass has any existence or substantiality, because the very instant when anything comes to pass, that is the end of it — of actions, words, experiences alike ; for Time like an everflowing stream bears all things onward.

But this faculty of the soul lays hold upon them, I know not how, and invests with semblance and being things not now present here. But memory is for us the hearing of deeds to which we are deaf and the seeing of things to which we are blind. Hence, as I said, it is no wonder that, if it has command over things that no longer are, it anticipates many of those which have not yet come to pass, since these are more closely related to it, and with these it has much in common ; for its attachments and associations are with the future, and it is quit of all that is past and ended, save only to remember it.

Thucydides, i. But that which foretells the future, like a tablet without writing, is both irrational and indeterminate in itself, but receptive of impressions and presentiments through what may be done to it, and inconsequently grasps at the future when it is farthest withdrawn from the present. Its withdrawal is brought about by a temperament and disposition of the body as it is subjected to a change which we call inspiration. Often the body of itself alone attains this disposition. Moreover the earth sends forth for men streams of many other potencies, some of them producing derangements, diseases, or deaths ; others helpful, benignant, and beneficial, as is plain from the experience of persons who have come upon them.

It is likely that by warmth and diffusion it opens up certain passages through which impressions of the future are transmitted, just as wine, when its fumes rise to the head, reveals many unusual movements and also words stored away and unperceived. All in the linen is blended the splendour of glorious scarlet,. But regarding the Cydnus and the sacred sword of Apollo in Tarsus we used to hear you say, my dear Demetrius, that the Cydnus will cleanse no steel but that, and no other water will cleanse that sword.

There is a similar phenomenon at Olympia, where they pile the ashes against the altar and make them adhere all around by pouring on them water from the Alpheius ; but, although they have tried the waters of other rivers, there is none with which they can make the ashes cohere and stay fixed in their place. The most learned of the people of Delphi still preserve the tradition of his name, which they say was Coretas. But I incline most to the opinion that the soul acquires towards the prophetic spirit a close and intimate connexion of the sort that vision has towards light, which possesses similar properties.

For, although the eye has the power of vision, there is no function for it to perform without light 1 ; and so the prophetic power of the soul, like an eye, has need of something kindred to help to kindle it and stimulate it further. Hence many among earlier generations regarded Apollo and the Sun as one and the same god ; but those who understood and respected fair and wise analogy conjectured that as body is to soul, vision to intellect, and light to truth, so is the power of the sun to the nature of Apollo ; and they would make it appear that the sun is his offspring and progeny, being for ever born of him that is for ever.

For the sun kindles and promotes and helps to keep in activity the power of vision in our perceptive senses, just as the god does for the power of prophecy in the soul. But in the case of the powers associated with the earth it is reasonable that there should come to pass disappearances in one place and generation in another place, and elsewrhere shifting of location and, from some other source, changes in current, 2 and that such cycles should complete many revolutions within it in the whole course of time, as we may judge from what happens before our eyes.

For in the case of lakes and rivers, and even more frequently in hot springs, there have occurred disappearances and complete extinction in some places, and in others a stealing away, as it were, and sinking under ground 3 ; later they came back, appearing after a time in the same places or flowing out from below somewhere near. And it is no long time since the rock in Euboea ceased to yield, among its other products, soft petrous[p.

To-day all this has disappeared, and there are scarcely any attenuated fibres or hairs, as it were, running through the mines. The hardness and temper of cold-forged copper is well attested. Plainly the same sober opinion is to be held regarding the spirits that inspire prophecy ; the power that they possess is not everlasting and ageless, but is subject to changes. For excessive rains most likely extinguish them, and they probably are dispersed by thunderbolts, and especially, when the earth is shaken beneath by an earthquake and suffers subsidence and ruinous confusion in its depths, the exhalations shift their site or find completely blind outlets, as in this place they say that there are still traces of that great earthquake which overthrew the city.

And in Orchomenos they relate that a pestilence raged and many persons died of it, and the oracle of Teiresias become altogether obsolescent and even to this day remains idle and mute. And if a like fate has befallen those in Cilicia, as we have been told, there is nobody, Demetrius, who could give us more certain information than you. But, when I was there, both the oracle of Mopsus and that of Amphilochus were still flourishing. I have a most amazing thing to tell as the result of my visit to the oracle of Mopsus.

The ruler of Cilicia was himself still of two minds towards religious matters. This, I think, was because his scepticism lacked conviction, for in all else he was an arrogant and contemptible man. When Demetrius had told this tale he lapsed into silence. They seemed to me to be desirous of saying something to us, and again I checked myself. I do not know how it happened, but a little time ago we yielded to logic in wresting the prophetic art from the gods and transferring it merely to the demigods. But now it seems to me that we are thrusting out these very demigods, in their turn, and driving them away from the oracle and the tripod here, when we resolve the origin of prophecy, or rather its very being and power, into winds and vapours and exhalations.

What possesses us to do so, if our souls carry within themselves the prophetic power, and it is some particular state of the air or its currents which stirs this to activity? Shaking the head is not enough, as in other sacrifices, but the tossing and quivering must extend to all parts of the animal alike accompanied by a tremulous sound ; and unless this takes place they say that the oracle is not functioning, and do not even bring in the prophetic priestess.

Yet it is only on the assumption that they ascribe the cause almost entirely to a god or a demigod that it is reasonable for them to act and to believe thus ; but on the basis of what you say it is not reasonable. For the presence of the exhalation, whether the victim be excited or not, will produce the inspiration and will dispose the soul auspiciously, not only the soul of the priestess, but that of any ordinary person with whom it may come into contact.

Wherefore it is silly to employ one woman alone for the purpose of the oracles and to give her trouble by watching her to keep her pure and chaste all her life. As a matter of fact, this Coretas, who the people of Delphi say was the first, because he fell in, to supply any means of knowing about the power with which the place is endowed, was not, I think, any different from the rest of the goatherds and shepherds, if so be that this is not a fable or a fabrication as I, for one, think it is. When I take into account the number of benefactions to the Greeks for which this oracle has been responsible, both in wars and in the founding of cities, in cases of pestilence and failure of crops, I think it is a dreadful thing to assign its discovery and origin, not to God and Providence, but to chance and accident.

Will you wait? For what you have said has set us all thinking. I shall defend myself by citing Plato as my witness and advocate in one. Plato himself was the first of the philosophers, or the one most prominently engaged in prosecuting investigations of both sorts, to assign to God, on the one hand, the origin of all things that are in keeping with reason, and on the other hand, not to divest matter of the causes necessary for whatever comes into being, but to realize that the perceptible universe, even when arranged in some such orderly way as this, is not pure and unalloyed, but that it takes its origin from matter when matter comes into conjunction with reason.

Observe first how it is with the artists. And, indeed, the author and creator of these likenesses and portraits here stands recorded in the inscription 3 :. But without pigments ground together, losing their own colour in the process, nothing could achieve such a composition and sight.

I think not. In fact there are some who question the properties of medicinal agents, but they do not do away with medical science. Herodotus, i. Of interest also in this connexion is the dedication recorded in the Sigeum inscription. Zeus the beginning, Zeus in the midst, and from Zeus comes all being 1 ;. On the other hand the younger generation which followed them, and are called physicists or natural philosophers, reverse the procedure of the older school in their aberration from the beautiful and divine origin, and ascribe everything to bodies and their behaviour, to clashes, transmutations, and combinations.

He who was the first to comprehend clearly both these points and to take, as a necessary adjunct to the agent that creates and actuates, the underlying matter, which is acted upon, clears us also of all suspicion of wilful misstatement. The fact is that we do not make the prophetic art godless or irrational when we assign to it as its material the soul of a human being, and assign the spirit of inspiration and the exhalation as an instrument or plectrum for playing on it.

For, in the first place, the earth, which generates the exhalation, and the sun, which endows the earth with all its power of tempering and transmutation, are, by the usage of our fathers, gods for us. Secondly, if we leave demigods as overseers, watchmen, and guardians of this tempered constitution, as if it were a kind of harmony, slackening here and tightening there on occasion, taking from it its too distracting and disturbing elements and incorporating those that are painless and harmless to the users, we shall not appear to be doing anything irrational or impossible.

Nor again, in offering the preliminary sacrifice to learn the god's will and in putting garlands on victims or pouring libations over them, are we doing anything to contradict this reasoning. For when the priests and holy men say that they are offering sacrifice and pouring the libation over the victim and observing its movements and its trembling, of what else do they take this to be a sign save that the god is in his holy temple? For what is to be offered in sacrifice must, both in body and in soul, be pure, unblemished, and unmarred.

In the case of the goat, they say, cold water gives positive proof; for indifference and immobility against being suddenly wet is not characteristic of a soul in a normal state. But for my part, even if it be firmly established that the trembling is a sign of the god's being in his holy temple and the contrary a sign of his not being there, I cannot see what difficulty in my statements results therefrom.

For every faculty duly performs its natural functions better or worse concurrently with some particular time ; and if that time escapes our ken, it is only reasonable that the god should give signs of it. Of the proof on which I depend I have as witnesses many foreigners and all the officials and servants at the shrine. It is a fact that the room in which they seat those who would consult the god is filled, not frequently or with any regularity, but as it may chance from time to time, with a delightful fragrance coming on a current of air which bears it towards the worshippers, as if its source were in the holy of holies ; and it is like the odour which the most exquisite and costly perfumes send forth.

It is likely that this efflorescence is produced by warmth or some other force engendered there. For many annoyances and disturbances of which she is conscious, and many more unpereeived, lay hold upon her body and filter into her soul; and whenever she is replete with these, it is better that she should not go there and surrender herself to the control of the god, when she is not completely unhampered as if she were a musical instrument, well strung and well tuned , but is in a state of emotion and instability.

But especially does the imaginative faculty of the soul seem to be swayed by the alterations in the body, and to change as the body changes, a fact which is clearly shown in dreams ; for at one time we find ourselves beset in our dreams by a multitude of visions of all sorts, and at another time again there comes a complete calmness and rest free from all such fancies. We ourselves know of Cleon here from Daulia and that he asserts that in all the many years he has lived he has never had a dream ; and among the older men the same thing is told of Thrasymedes of Heraea. As it happened, a deputation from abroad had arrhed to consult the oracle.

The victim, it is said, remained unmoved and unaffected in any way by the first libations ; but the priests, in their eagerness to please, went far beyond their wonted usage, and only after the victim had been subjected to a deluge and nearly drowned did it at last give in. What, then, was the result touching the priestess? She went down into the oracle unwillingly, they say, and halfheartedly ; and at her first responses it was at once plain from the harshness of her voice that she was not responding properly ; she was like a labouring ship and was filled with a mighty and baleful spirit.

Finally she became hysterical and with a frightful shriek rushed towards the exit and threw herself down, with the result that not only the members of the deputation fled, but also the oracle-interpreter Nicander and those holy men that were present. However, after a little, they went in and took her up, still conscious ; and she lived on for a few days. The power of the spirit does not affect all persons nor the same persons always in the same way, but it only supplies an enkindling and an inception, as has been said, for them that are in a proper state to be affected and to undergo the change.

The power comes from the gods and demigods, but, for all that, it is not unfailing nor imperishable nor ageless, lasting into that infinite time by which all things between earth and moon become wearied out, according to our reasoning. And there are some who assert that the things above the moon also do not. So let them be postponed until another time, and likewise the question which Philip raises about the Sun and Apollo. English Translation by Frank Cole Babbitt. She was one of the main deities worshiped in Athenian households as a protective goddess and one who bestowed prosperity and daily blessings on the family.

Regarding the nature of her cult, it has been remarked, "she is more at home on the fringes than in the center of Greek polytheism. Intrinsically ambivalent and polymorphous, she straddles conventional boundaries and eludes definition. Name and Origin. While many researchers favor the idea that she has Anatolian origins, it has been argued that "Hecate must have been a Greek goddess. This line of reasoning lies behind the widely accepted hypothesis that she was a foreign deity who was incorporated into the Greek pantheon. Shrines to Hecate were placed at doorways to both homes and cities with the belief that it would protect from restless dead and other spirits.

Likewise, shrines to Hecate at three way crossroads were created where food offerings were left at the new moon to protect those who did so from spirits and other evils. Dogs were sacred to Hecate and associated with roads, domestic spaces, purification, and spirits of the dead. Dogs were also sacrificed to the road. This can be compared to Pausanias' report that in the Ionian city of Colophon in Asia Minor a sacrifice of a black female puppy was made to Hecate as "the wayside goddess", and Plutarch's observation that in Boeotia dogs were killed in purificatory rites.

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Dogs, with puppies often mentioned, were offered to Hecate at crossroads, which were sacred to the goddess. As Hecate Phosphorus Venus she is said to have lit the sky during the Siege of Philip II in , revealing the attack to its inhabitants. The Byzantines dedicated a statue to her as the "lamp carrier. In Greek, deipnon means the evening meal, usually the largest meal of the day. Hecate was generally represented as three-formed. This has been speculated as being connected with the appearance of the full moon, half moon, and new moon.

The earliest Greek depictions of Hecate were not three-formed. Farnell states: "The evidence of the monuments as to the character and significance of Hecate is almost as full as that of to express her manifold and mystic nature. Some classical portrayals show her as a triplicate goddess holding a torch, a key, serpents, daggers and numerous other items. Depictions of both a single form Hekate and triple formed, as well as occasional four headed descriptions continued throughout her history.

In other representations her animal heads include those of a cow and a boar. It shows Hecate, with a hound beside her, placing a wreath on the head of a mare. She is commonly attended by a dog or dogs, and the most common form of offering was to leave meat at a crossroads. Dogs were closely associated with Hecate in the Classical world. Her approach was heralded by the howling of a dog. The dog was Hecate's regular sacrificial animal, and was often eaten in solemn sacrament.

Although in later times Hecate's dog came to be thought of as a manifestation of restless souls or demons who accompanied her, its docile appearance and its accompaniment of a Hecate who looks completely friendly in many pieces of ancient art suggests that its original signification was positive and thus likelier to have arisen from the dog's connection with birth than the dog's underworld associations. The friendly looking female dog accompanying Hecate was originally the Trojan Queen Hekabe, who leapt into the sea after the fall of Troy and was transformed by Hecate into her familiar.

Another metamorphosis myth explains why the polecat is also associated with Hecate. This maiden was playmate and companion of Alkmene, daughter of Elektryon. They remained seated, each keeping their arms crossed. Galinthias, fearing that the pains of her labour would drive Alkmene mad, ran to the Moirai and Eleithyia and announced that by desire of Zeus a boy had been born to Alkmene and that their prerogatives had been abolished.

At all this, consternation of course overcame the Moirai and they immediately let go their arms. The Moirai were aggrieved at this and took away the womanly parts of Galinthias since, being but a mortal, she had deceived the gods. They turned her into a deceitful weasel or polecat , making her live in crannies and gave her a grotesque way of mating. She is mounted through the ears and gives birth by bringing forth her young through the throat.

Hekate felt sorry for this transformation of her appearance and appointed her a sacred servant of herself. Aelian told a different story of a woman transformed into a polecat: ""I have heard that the polecat was once a human being. It has also reached my hearing that Gale was her name then; that she was a dealer in spells and a sorceress Pharmakis ; that she was extremely incontinent, and that she was afflicted with abnormal sexual desires. Nor has it escaped my notice that the anger of the goddess Hekate transformed it into this evil creature.

In relation to Greek concepts of pollution, Parker observes, "The fish that was most commonly banned was the red mullet trigle , which fits neatly into the pattern. It 'delighted in polluted things,' and 'would eat the corpse of a fish or a man'. Blood-coloured itself, it was sacred to the blood-eating goddess Hecate.

It seems a symbolic summation of all the negative characteristics of the creatures of the deep. After mentioning that this fish was sacred to Hecate, Alan Davidson writes, "Cicero, Horace, Juvenal, Martial, Pliny, Seneca and Suetonius have left abundant and interesting testimony to the red mullet fever which began to affect wealthy Romans during the last years of the Republic and really gripped them in the early Empire.

The main symptoms were a preoccupation with size, the consequent rise to absurd heights of the prices of large specimens, a habit of keeping red mullet in captivity, and the enjoyment of the highly specialized aesthetic experience induced by watching the color of the dying fish change. In her three-headed representations, discussed above, Hecate often has one or more animal heads, including cow, dog, boar, serpent and horse. In particular she was thought to give instruction in these closely related arts.

Her attendants draped wreathes of yew around the necks of black bulls which they slaughtered in her honor and yew boughs were burned on funeral pyres. It is presumed that the latter were named after the tree because of its superiority for both bows and poison. It has been suggested that the use of dogs for digging up mandrake is further corroboration of the association of this plant with Hecate; indeed, since at least as early as the 1st century CE, there are a number of attestations to the apparently widespread practice of using dogs to dig up plants associated with magic.

Hecate was associated with borders, city walls, doorways, crossroads and, by extension, with realms outside or beyond the world of the living. She appears to have been particularly associated with being 'between' and hence is frequently characterized as a " liminal " goddess. Enodia's very name "In-the-Road" suggests that she watched over entrances, for it expresses both the possibility that she stood on the main road into a city, keeping an eye on all who entered, and in the road in front of private houses, protecting their inhabitants. Hecate's importance to Byzantium was above all as a deity of protection.

Watchdogs were used extensively by Greeks and Romans. Like Hecate, "[t]he dog is a creature of the threshold, the guardian of doors and portals, and so it is appropriately associated with the frontier between life and death, and with demons and ghosts which move across the frontier. And she conceived and bore Hecate whom Zeus the son of Cronos honored above all. He gave her splendid gifts, to have a share of the earth and the unfruitful sea. She received honor also in starry heaven, and is honored exceedingly by the deathless gods.

For to this day, whenever any one of men on earth offers rich sacrifices and prays for favor according to custom, he calls upon Hecate. Great honor comes full easily to him whose prayers the goddess receives favorably, and she bestows wealth upon him; for the power surely is with her. For as many as were born of Earth and Ocean amongst all these she has her due portion. The son of Cronos did her no wrong nor took anything away of all that was her portion among the former Titan gods: but she holds, as the division was at the first from the beginning, privilege both in earth, and in heaven, and in sea.

According to Hesiod, she held sway over many things:. Whom she will she greatly aids and advances: she sits by worshipful kings in judgement, and in the assembly whom she will is distinguished among the people. And when men arm themselves for the battle that destroys men, then the goddess is at hand to give victory and grant glory readily to whom she will. Good is she also when men contend at the games, for there too the goddess is with them and profits them: and he who by might and strength gets the victory wins the rich prize easily with joy, and brings glory to his parents.

And she is good to stand by horsemen, whom she will: and to those whose business is in the grey discomfortable sea, and who pray to Hecate and the loud-crashing Earth-Shaker, easily the glorious goddess gives great catch, and easily she takes it away as soon as seen, if so she will. She is good in the byre with Hermes to increase the stock. The droves of kine and wide herds of goats and flocks of fleecy sheep, if she will, she increases from a few, or makes many to be less.

So, then, albeit her mother's only child, she is honored amongst all the deathless gods. And the son of Cronos made her a nurse of the young who after that day saw with their eyes the light of all-seeing Dawn. So from the beginning she is a nurse of the young, and these are her honours. Another theory is that Hekate was mainly a household god and humble household worship could have been more pervasive and yet not mentioned as much as temple worship.

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In Athens Hecate, along with Zeus, Hermes, Hestia, and Apollo, were very important in daily life as they were the main gods of the household. Because of this association, Hecate was one of the chief goddesses of the Eleusinian Mysteries, alongside Demeter and Persephone. Variations in interpretations of Hecate's role or roles can be traced in classical Athens. One surviving group of stories suggests how Hecate might have come to be incorporated into the Greek pantheon without affecting the privileged position of Artemis.

She scorns and insults Artemis, who in retribution eventually brings about the mortal's suicide. Hellenistic period to Late Antiquity. Principally the Ethiopians which dwell in the Orient, and the Egyptians which are excellent in all kind of ancient doctrine, and by their proper ceremonies accustomed to worship me, do call me Queen Isis. In the Michigan magical papyrus inv. Many of Hecate's dominions are represented in various ways throughout the show, such as one of her familiars behaving in a dog-like manner around her; her grotto being connected to an herb-filled apothecary space; and watching from the shadows as the witches give their prophecies to Macbeth.

He noted that the cult regularly practiced dog sacrifice and had secretly buried the body of one of its "queens" with seven dogs. Its adopted name alludes to it as being the hundredth named asteroid 'hekaton' being the Greek for 'hundred'. However, there is an alternative tradition in which it was the divine gift of a jar of blessings that was opened by a curious male. These stories account for the presence of hope in the world although, depending on pessimistic or optimistic interpretations of the meaning of that word, its benefit is uncertain.

Later poets, dramatists, painters and sculptors made her their subject and over the course of five centuries contributed new insights into her motives and significance. In some variants, Charis was one of the Graces and was not the singular form of their name. In some versions of myth, Pothos is the son of Eros, or is portrayed as an independent aspect of him. Pothos represents longing or yearning.

They call him the Old Gentleman because he is trustworthy, and gentle, and never forgetful of what is right, but the thoughts of his mind are mild and righteous. The Attic vase-painters showed the draped torso of Nereus issuing from a long coiling scaly fishlike tail. Bearded Nereus generally wields a staff of authority.

He was also shown in scenes depicting the flight of the Nereides as Peleus wrestled their sister Thetis. The later sileni were drunken followers of Dionysus, usually bald and fat with thick lips and squat noses, and having the legs of a human. Later still, the plural "sileni" went out of use and the only references were to one individual named Silenus, the teacher and faithful companion of the wine-god Dionysus.

When intoxicated, Silenus was said to possess special knowledge and the power of prophecy. As Silenus fell asleep, the king's servants seized and took him to their master. Another story was that Silenus had been captured by two shepherds, and regaled them with wondrous tales. Silenus refers to the satyrs as his children during the play. This thought is indeed so old that the one who first uttered it is no longer known; it has been passed down to us from eternity, and hence doubtless it is true. Moreover, you know what is so often said and passes for a trite expression.

What is that, he asked? He answered: It is best not to be born at all; and next to that, it is better to die than to live; and this is confirmed even by divine testimony. Pertinently to this they say that Midas, after hunting, asked his captive Silenus somewhat urgently, what was the most desirable thing among humankind. At first he could offer no response, and was obstinately silent. This should be our choice, if choice we have; and the next to this is, when we are born, to die as soon as we can. Prophets are traditionally regarded as having a role in society that promotes change due to their messages and actions which often convey God's displeasure concerning the behavior of the people.

The books, in order of their occurrence in the Christian Old Testament, are:. Baruch including the Letter of Jeremiah is not part of the Hebrew Bible. Prophetic passages appear widely distributed throughout Biblical narrative. It is believed that prophets are called or chosen by God. The term is sometimes applied outside religion to describe someone who fervently promotes a theory that the speaker thinks is false. Other roles of angels include protecting and guiding human beings, and carrying out God's tasks. The term "angel" has also been expanded to various notions of spirits or figures found in other religious traditions.

The theological study of angels is known as "angelology". Such differentiation has been taken over by later vernacular translations of the Bible, early Christian and Jewish exegetes and eventually modern scholars. They patronize human beings and other creatures, and also manifest God's energy. Depending on the context, the Hebrew word may refer to a human messenger or to a supernatural messenger. These angels are part of Daniel's apocalyptic visions and are an important part of all apocalyptic literature.

The angel is something different from God himself, but is conceived as God's instrument. In post-Biblical Judaism, certain angels took on particular significance and developed unique personalities and roles. Michael, who serves as a warrior and advocate for Israel Daniel , is looked upon particularly fondly. Angels exist in the worlds above as a 'task' of God. They are an extension of God to produce effects in this world. After an angel has completed its task, it ceases to exist. The angel is in effect the task. The task of one of the angels was to inform Abraham of his coming child.

God burns things by means of fire; fire is moved by the motion of the sphere; the sphere is moved by means of a disembodied intellect, these intellects being the 'angels which are near to Him', through whose mediation the spheres move Maimonides writes that to the wise man, one sees that what the Bible and Talmud refer to as "angels" are actually allusions to the various laws of nature; they are the principles by which the physical universe operates. For all forces are angels! How blind, how perniciously blind are the naive?!

If you told someone who purports to be a sage of Israel that the Deity sends an angel who enters a woman's womb and there forms an embryo, he would think this a miracle and accept it as a mark of the majesty and power of the Deity, despite the fact that he believes an angel to be a body of fire one third the size of the entire world. All this, he thinks, is possible for God. Later Christians inherited Jewish understandings of angels, which in turn may have been partly inherited from the Egyptians.

In the early stage, the Christian concept of an angel characterized the angel as a messenger of God. Then, in the space of little more than two centuries from the 3rd to the 5th the image of angels took on definite characteristics both in theology and in art. According to St. Augustine, " 'Angel' is the name of their office, not of their nature. If you seek the name of their nature, it is 'spirit'; if you seek the name of their office, it is 'angel': from what they are, 'spirit', from what they do, 'angel'.

There was, however, some disagreement regarding the nature of angels. The resolution of this Trinitarian dispute included the development of doctrine about angels. The angels are represented throughout the Christian Bible as spiritual beings intermediate between God and men: "You have made him [man] a little less than the angels The Bible describes the function of angels as "messengers" but does not indicate when the creation of angels occurred.

He commanded and they were created Interaction with angels. Forget not to show love unto strangers: for thereby some have entertained angels unawares. According to Matthew , after Jesus spent 40 days in the desert, " According to the Vatican 's Congregation for Divine Worship and Discipline of the Sacraments, "The practice of assigning names to the Holy Angels should be discouraged, except in the cases of Gabriel, Raphael and Michael whose names are contained in Holy Scripture.

He had on a loose robe of most exquisite whiteness. It was a whiteness beyond anything earthly I had ever seen; nor do I believe that any earthly thing could be made to appear so exceedingly white and brilliant Not only was his robe exceedingly white, but his whole person was glorious beyond description, and his countenance truly like lightning. The room was exceedingly light, but not so very bright as immediately around his person. When I first looked upon him, I was afraid; but the fear soon left me. Islam is clear on the nature of angels in that they are messengers of God.

Date and Occasion of dedication Assigning a date to the monument has proved problematic. In the course of time various theories have been proposed for the date and occasion of the monument's inception. A late date, in the s after Eumenes' victory against the Gauls, was proposed as early as by Brueckner.

The appearance there of Scythian allies of Telephos Cat. In addition, he claimed that the introduction of a lioness, instead of a deer, suckling baby Telephos Cat. Schmidt who reached the same conclusions using ceramic material from the archives of the Pergamon Museum in Berlin. Brueckner, "Wann ist der Pergamonaltar erichtet worden? His theory was accepted by: B. Schafer never published the results of his excavation. However his unpublished material was handed over to Radt and de Luca, who will, shortly, be publishing the results of Schafer's work and the results of their excavation in the Pergamenische Forschungen see above p.

The location of the naval battle is unknown; Cornelius Nepos Hannibal For the military events see Chapter 2 Macedonians p. For the starburst shield and its allusion see Chapter 5, Part A Gigantomachy frieze. Allegories section. Furthermore, Andreae argued that the Attalid victory over the Gauls of Ortiagon could hardly have been so important, especially as the Gauls were fighting the Attalids not on their own but as allies of Prusias of Bithynia.

Palace V and the temple of Hera. According to Heres the raid of Prusias of Bithynia in BC forced the Pergamenes to take the work force from the altar and put them into the massive task of reconstructing the destroyed buildings. Segre "Due nuovi testi storici" Riv. An earlier date in the s was also accepted by A. Paper 14 London 23; H. Berve, Greek temples, theatres and shrines New York, ; M. Andreae, "Dating and significance of the Telephos frieze in relation to the other dedications of the Attalids of Pergamon" Pergamon II, ; Segre, His argument was that the Altar intended to show that Pergamon was stronger than Rome and that she did not need Rome's help to repel her enemies.

To demonstrate that he presents the frieze slab Cat. As publication of the ceramic material from the excavations is in press, it would be premature to draw any conclusions on the altar's date. However, I am inclined to believe that, at least historically, a date for the Great Altar after the defeat of the Gauls in BC is more likely than a date in the s or s. According to Pliny NH Pliny's testimony is supported by a number of inscriptions derived from the socle of the frieze where the names of sculptors were recorded underneath the names of the giants. The full names of five sculptors have survived and fragments of the signatures of at least eleven more.

Various attempts have been made to determine the number of artists and to assign portions of the Gigantomachy frieze to them. Winnefeld indicated that the shallow perpendicular lines on the base moulding of the frieze showed the extent of the sections about 3 panels assigned to the individual artists. Schuchhardt, in his detailed study of the frieze's stylistic differences, concluded that the frieze was divided into 15 sections which were worked by 15 different masters or workshops.

IvP nos. Smith, in his criticism of Thimme's argument has suggested that the number proposed, though possible, seems too high; that some or even all the sculptors may have worked on more than one part of the frieze. Laokoon group Fig. On the other hand, she claims that Athenian influences can be detected in the execution of the faces of the figures on the north frieze; e. To the hands of Pergamene artists Hansen assigned the fallen giants of human form on all sides of the frieze because they resembled some figures from the earlier Attalid monuments see Chapters 2, for Attalid monuments, and 3 for the influences on the Gigantomachy.

Hansen's stylistic demarcation of the frieze does not take into consideration that many of the traits she calls Rhodian, Athenian or Pergamene are not confined to particular sections of the frieze but are, rather, found on all sides and in most battling groups. For instance, the "Rhodian" east frieze has a vivid image from Athenian art: namely the composition of Zeus and Athena which is the mirror image of the group of Poseidon and Athena from the Parthenon's west pediment. Schuchhardt" review Gnomon II ; B. Schuchhardt" review in GGA The influence of the Parthenon pediment on Greek art is also evident on other works of art, cf.

However, opinions on the identity of the master-sculptor diverge. The earliest suggestion was presented by von Salis who favoured Rhodian 78 argument testimony that Menekrates was one of the 7 most famous architects in Greek antiquity and therefore eligible for the altar's chief-designer position.

Stewart, Greek Sculpture vol. Lippold, GGA , by E. Fabricius RE XV, , s. Menekrates 39 , by C. Bulle assigned to Menekrates and Dionysiades Zeus' group Cat. Holliday, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Athenaios 9. Porter, "Philodemos on material difference" Cronache Ercolanesi 19 n. Muller and F. Queyrel who asked which of the three known artists with the name Phyromachos might have been the master of the Great Altar and whether Phyromachos' statue of Asklepios stood in the Asklepieion or the Nikephorion.

Most theories so far proposed for the date of the monument's inception all connect it to military victories for which the altar was erected as a thank-offering, intended to glorify the Pergamenes and present them as defenders of Hellenism, the Gauls as barbarian and brutal.

On Phyromachos see also Chapter 2 pp. Consequently, Michaelis suggested substituting the name Isigonos for that of Epigonos, considering the latter's prominence as a Pergamene court sculptor; A. See also Chapter 2, Lesser Attalid dedication. Andreae, believes that this votive group consisted of more than under life-size statues of giants, Gauls, Persians, and Amazons; "Vom Pergamonaltar bis Raffael" A W Asklepios 9 statue: F. Mttller, "Phyromachos im pergamenischen Nikephorion? See also Hansen on the debate of the three sculptors with the name Phyromachos: a fifth century BC one who worked on the Erechtheion frieze Anth.

Pollitt ; Stewart ; Hoepfner, Model 67; B. See above n. They advocated the same theory for the earlier apsidal structure in the altar's foundation. Their theory was also accepted by Webb, The Attalid ascent to power The city of Pergamon is situated on a hilltop in the valley of the river Kaikos, ft. On the north it is surrounded by mountains, while the eastern and western sides of the hill are washed by the rivers Selinos and Ketios respectively , tributaries to the river Kaikos.

The first time Pergamon made its appearance, in historical times, was in Xenophon's Anabasis 7. VIII, ed. Astin, F. Walbank, M. Frederiksen, R. Ogilvie, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press According to Xenophon Hellenica 3. For this reason, according to Xenophon, Gongylos was banished from Eretria. According to Thucydides 1. For information on pre-Attalid Pergamon see Hansen Cardinali, 11 regno di Pergamon Rome ; H. Bengston, Die Strategic in der hellenistischen Zeit vols.

In the years of Alexander the Great, Pergamon has been the residence of his son Herakles, by the Persian princess Barsine; ca. Strabo The confrontation between the two kings Seleukos I and Lysimachos ended with the battle at Koroupedion BC where Lysimachos was defeated and met his death; Eusebios Chron. SchOne I. Beloch Griechische Geschichte , 2nd ed. Eumenes opposed Seleukid suzerainty over Pergamon and claimed independence for his city in a battle against Antiochos I near Sardis.

This change of authority is particularly evident in the city's coinage. The head of Seleukos I on the obverse of the Pergamene coinage is now replaced by that of Philetairos wearing a taenia. For the reasons that led Philetairos to transfer his allegiance to Seleukos I see: Justin IvP F C Between the years BC they invaded Macedonia, mainland Greece, and northern Asia Minor in the form of raiding waves.

Attalid military history and foreign policy is a very complicated subject and it is not in the best interests of this study to attempt even to outline them. However, a general idea of the events and the alliances behind them is important for understanding the contemporary state of affairs. Pausanias One body, under Belgus, pressed into regions bordering on Macedonia; a second group settled in Thrace; a third group, led by Brennus, pushed into Greece and attacked Delphi he was repelled with great loss; see n.

From Brennus' group, three separate tribes crossed the Bosporos with the help of Nikomedes of Bithynia who later solicited their support against his brother and Antiochos I of Syria. Nikomedes of Bithynia and Mithradates of Pontos allowed them to settle down in the mountainous interior of Phrygia and Kappadokia Galatia which separated the Seleukid kingdom from the Pontic principalities. See also S. Mitchell, Anatolia. Land, Men and Gods in Asia Minor, vol. A votive relief from Kyzikos, depicted Herakles naked with a raised club attacking a collapsing Gaul who is wearing Celtic trousers and was carrying the characteristic oval shield.

The relief is dated ca. Boardman s. Herakles, no. Museum inv. That the Gauls remained the most threatening danger to the Greeks in Asia Minor is attested by Polybios As a consequence of this alliance some of the cities offered financial and military contributions to Pergamon in return for protection; Pol.

Seleukids A similarly formative role in the shaping of Attalid power in Asia Minor was played by the Seleukids. Seleukos I Nikator had provided Philetairos with the aid he required to disengage himself from Lysimachos' suzerainty in exchange for that of the Syrian king. The terms of the treaty concluded that Eumenes would take under his control most of Seleukid Asia Minor and a portion of Thrace. Fil Musical contests were instituted in Tralles ca.

Honours by the city of Miletos M. Holleaux argued that Attalos was attempting to found an empire in the Aegean. Finally, Philip V at that time had shown no interest in Attalos' kingdom and therefore posed no threat to him.

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Rome was asked to intervene but all it did was to send an embassy to Hannibal demanding his surrender and an end to the war. He was finally defeated in BC at the battle of Pydna Table 1. Holleaux, Rome, la Grece et les monarchies hellenistiques au Me siecle av. Wilcken, RE s. Attalos 9 An alliance between them was formed during the First Macedonian War, into which Pergamon was reluctantly dragged by her Aitolian allies. She actively joined the war only after Attalos' death, thus assuming a leading position against Philip.

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However, Rome's attitude towards her ally Pergamon changed dramatically in the next 20 years in reaction to Pergamon's growing power in Asia Minor. In the wars against Prusias I BC and Phamakes of Pontos BC , though Rome's assistance was repeatedly asked, she consistently stayed out of the conflict. Rome's attitude changed in BC when the threat of Perseus' growing power in the Aegean forced her to receive Eumenes as an ally again. The already damaged alliance between the two cities was completely severed in the following war of Eumenes II against the Gauls BC.

Eumenes sent two embassies to Rome, the first led by his brother Attalos II and the second by himself, but he was rudely rebuffed. Rome's refusal encouraged Gallic forces to resume their raids but they were finally defeated by the combined forces of Eumenes, Ariarathes IV, and Antiochos IV of Syria. Pergamon: the cultural centre of Asia Minor The rise of Pergamon in Asia Minor as a strong political, economic, and cultural centre, is particularly manifested in Attalid internal policies. The growing Attalid self- confidence, resulting from their numerous victories over enemies, is evident in the city's royal coinage, religious festivals and cults, as well as in their elaborate programme of city- beautification and patronage of arts and learning.

Coinage 45 When Eumenes I BC acquired the throne of Pergamon upon the death of his uncle Philetairos BC , he introduced a new type of silver tetradrachm the Philetairos-type modelled upon the coin of his predecessor but bearing on the obverse the head of Philetairos instead of that of Seleukos I Nikator; the head is bound with a band taenia. On the reverse is the figure of Athena, seated on a throne, wearing crested helmet, chiton and peplos, her oustretched right hand resting on the shield before her knees and her left holding a spear and resting on the throne.

The head of Philetairos on the obverse acquired a diadem entwined with laurel in place of the previous taenia. On the reverse, the shield of Athena was moved from the left side of the coin to the right side, resting against the back of her throne. Her spear was moved from the left hand side to the right, rather casually placed between her legs.

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For the issues of Philetairos see Newell ; Fr. The motif of the seated Athena with her shield resting on the side of her throne is also depicted on the balustrade of Athena Nike in Athens dated to ca. The name derives from the type of the obverse. The reverse represents two serpents either side of a bow-case Fig. The dates suggested range from s to BC. It is therefore quite plausible that the kistophoros was introduced after the victory of Eumenes 49 Westermark See previous note. Kleiner and S. Olcay, H. On stylistic grounds and number of dies; 16 reverse and 24 obverse.

In effect, despite the fact that the royal tetradrachms ceased to exist by the late s Attalos II and Attalos III did not issue any , the kistophoros was in a way the king's money. As the previous Philetairos type, through its symbols bow, grapes, thyrsos etc. The kiste mystike and the ivy-wreath on the obverse, and the grapes on the obverse of the smaller bronze denominations were all sacred attributes or symbols of Dionysos, the divine ancestor of the Attalid Dynasty see cult of Dionysos. The bow-case on the reverse and the club and lion's skin on the reverse of the smaller denominations were the symbols of Herakles, father of Telephos, the mythical founder of Pergamon see following section Cult, Athena.

Of all the kistophoroi in our possession, a group of fourteen seem strikingly different from the rest; for they incorporate the initials BA EY on the reverse Fig. Before he fled to Stratonikeia, where he was eventually captured by the Romans in BC, he had been in possession of the cities of Apollonia and Thyateira. Imhoof-BIummer F. Klasse Munich suggested that the letters B, r, and A referred to the second, third and fourth years, dating from the Peace of Apamea.

His theory has been widely accepted: see e. Morkholm ; Kleiner-Noe However, the numismatic evidence suggests it is correct and there are in the immediately preceding period examples of pretenders who changed their names to those of previous kings in order to claim royal descent. In BC a certain Andriskos, pretender to the Macedonian throne, claimed to be the son of Perseus and, after assuming the name of his "grandfather" Philip V, led an army to take over Macedonia. On its reverse, two youthful male figures, each holding a spear are represented.

They stand facing, wearing pointed caps and chlamydes. The whole of the motif is encircled by a laurel wreath. Only two coins of this type have survived, one in the Cabinet des Medailles de la Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris Fig. On the British Museum coin, a thyrsos is represented in the right field of the reverse; on the Paris coin a stylis in the left field of the reverse.

The provenance of these coins is unknown, but scholars have usually accepted the view that this type was struck during the reign of Eumenes II. Sherwin-White and A. Morkholm, eds. Le Rider, K. Jenkins, N. Waggoner and U. Westermark Louvain-la-Neuve, , pis The lettering of two inscriptions, dedicated by a certain Pataras, on one of the columns of the pronaos has been used to place the temple in the reign of Philetairos BC. A similarly archaistic palladion is also depicted on a marble slab probably from the Telephos frieze of the Great Altar.

Therefore, only the evidence on the cults of Athena, Zeus and Dionysos Kathegemon will be presented. Otherwise evidence on the cult of such deities as the Kabeiroi, Kybele, Demeter, Kore and Asklepios will be presented where appropriate in the following chapters. On the cults of Areia, and Tauropolos there is no information. Athena no. Therefore Conze suggested that it must have been dedicated before that year.

As the evidence suggests IvP. The location of the Nikephorion sanctuary has not been identified. It is believed that it lies under the site of a large military garrison located between the Musala Mezarlik hill and the Asklepieion. The inscriptional evidence unfortunately provides insufficient material on the context of this festival.

After all, the Pergamenes claimed that they were descendants of the Greek Telephos son of Greek Herakles and that the cult of Athena had been introduced to their city by his mother Auge, priestess of Athena Alea at Tegea and daughter of the king of Tegea. By 8l IvP. The first references to the Panathenaia come from two inscriptions dated to the reign of Eumenes I. The first IvP. It is clearly stated The second inscription IvP.

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It provides the information that the citizens of Tegea were to be "crowned" Moreover, according to Polybius 4. Holleaux identified this festival as the Nikephoria, another festival of the goddess, but this identification should probably be rejected, for the epithet Nikephoros is absent from Polybius' passage; M. If the contests to which he refers were at the Nikephoria, he would almost certainly have said so specifically; for he is quite specific about the Soteria in Bithynia. Robinson Oxford: at the Clarendon Press, See above p. The coin is a silver tetradrachm representing Medusa on the obverse and the goddess Athena Nikephoros on the reverse Fig.

The peculiar representation of the goddess, combining both Greek and oriental elements, prompted modem scholars to suggest assimilation of attributes from the local goddess Kybele's attributes. However, a careful consideration of the cult and function of Athena in Pergamon indicates that this peculiar representation of Athena should probably be explained in relation to the contemporary historical and economic developments in the Pergamene kingdom.

Most of the Attalid victory monuments on the Pergamene acropolis were dedicated to both Zeus and Athena. On the Nikephoria festival and its date see also: Hansen ; C. In the decrees it is also stated that the new Nikephorion sanctuary was to be declared inviolable. Jones and Ohlemutz 34 argued that Attalus I instituted the Nikephoria in the late s, basing their argument on a passage in Polybius 4.

Allen argued against them suggesting that the festival was instituted by Eumenes II; See also P. MvXcovav, 3 Athens Brill forthcoming ; App. On the cult of Zeus Keraunios, Boulaios and Soter there is no information other than these isolated dedications. On the uppermost terrace of the Pergamene acropolis a Korinthian temple was erected by Trajan dedicated to Zeus Philios and Trajan. The speculation that there was a cult of this Zeus in Pergamon during the reign of the Attalids is unsubstantiated; there is no contemporary evidence from the Attalid reign for a cult of Zeus Philios.

The cult of Zeus Sabazios in Pergamon seems to be associated with the cult of a divine ancestor. From the first letter of the king, addressed to the people of Pergamon and dated 5th of October BC, we are informed that the cult of Zeus Sabazios "as an ancestral divinity" was introduced into Pergamon by Stratonike, daughter of king Ariarathes IV of Kappadokia, and mother of Attalos II.

II Pergamon was sacred to Zeus because, according to a local legend, the Great Gods Kabeiroi had witnessed the birth of Zeus from her acropolis; IvP The importance of the cult of Zeus in Pergamon is attested by the dedication of numerous altars and victory monuments to him. But that alone, cannot argue the case for a cult of Zeus Philios in Pergamon during the Attalid period. Athenaios was the son of Sosander, priest of Dionysos Kathegemon, who married the daughter of Athenaios the son of Midias, and cousin of the Attalids. According to the letter 1.

A Delphic oracle and another delivered by a woman called Phainnis foretold that the Greek cities of Asia Minor would be saved from the menace of the invading Gauls by Attalos of Pergamon Attalos I , son of the "bull-homed" Dionysos. Attalos Delphic oracle ; Pausanias On the date of the letter see below n. For an analysis of the evidence see D. Welles no. On the Dionysiac guilds see also: A. Pickard-Cambridge, The dramatic festivals of Athem, 2nd ed.

Oxford: Clarendon Press, ; I. Csapo and W. The Artists of Dionysos first appear as an identifiable body of performers not yet organised into guilds ca. It is first mentioned in an Aitolian decree of about BC which grants "actpaXeia" security and "aauXeta" immunity to its registered members. It is not known exactly when this merger took place. For this reason and for his benefactions towards the guild Two of its eponymous officers were a priest of the god and an agonothetes magistrate responsible for the conduct of competitive festivals. Before one examines the evidence for Attalid ruler-cult, it is important to make a distinction between "civic ruler-cult" and state ruler organised "ruler- cult".

Civic ruler-cults were voluntarily introduced by individual Greek cities of their own accord without direct orders from the ruler. They usually resulted from royal benefactions i. U0 S1G. II ; Pickard-Cambridge Teos joined the Pergamene kingdom in BC; so the merger could certainly not have taken place before that. Welles p. It is our first indication a group of Artists in which Dionysos has the specific title Kathegemon.

JG XI. U8 Michel no. The Ionian League voted to award him a gold crown for valour, to erect a gilded statue of him and to celebrate games in his honour at the Pan-Ionian festival and throughout the cities of the League. The crowning of a person is a practice appropriate to a benefactor. An inscription from Pergamon during the reign of Eumenes I BC makes provision for the public crowning of five generals 1. The gilded statue voted by the Ionian League is not necessarily a cult statue.

Outside Pergamon: Cult honours and deification The first signs of cult honours are recorded in the reign of Attalos I. An inscription from Athens records that Attalos was to be made synnaos in Aigina with Aiakos, the island's hero. I23 Musical contests, probably called Eumeneia, Robert Tralles. IG II. IV nr. The case of Aigina, however, is different. According to Pausanias A decree of the city of Teos, dated between BC, refers to priesthoods of king Eumenes, queen Stratonike and of the goddess Apollonis Eusebes Eumenes' mother. Although the living king and queen Eumenes II and Stratonike are not called gods The evidence is derived from a royal letter and Milesian decrees dated in the last decade of Eumenes II's reign BC.

Pindar O. Aiakos fathered Peleus and Telamon and was the grandfather of Ajax, son of Telamon. A decree issued by the city of Miletos refers to honours voted by the city to Eumenes II and his two brothers, Athenaios and Attalos. From two other decrees dated in the s we derive the information that Eumenes had provided the capital for the city's gymnasium and had received honours from the city as its benefactor. Ephesos, still part subject city of the Pergamene kingdom, indeed its largest port, probably felt itself more entitled to royal patronage and prosperity than Miletos and consequently would be less prone to the extravagant gesture of introducing a ruler-cult.

Decrees and royal letters indicate that Ephesian citizens occupied high ranks in Attalid royal administration. Wiegand Bouche-Leclercq, Histoire des Seleukides, 2 vols. Paris, 1. Habicht, "Gottmenschentum und griechische Stadte" Zetemata 14 Munich , rev.

I43 AUen It has been called so because its main building closely resembles in plan the sacred house in Priene, probably an Alexandreion, and the heroon at Kalydon. However, his conclusions were contested by Wensler who dates the structure to the reign of Eumenes II. I53 The debate rests mainly on the fact that the Attalistai decree see above n. Pergamon: Conze AvP 1. Hansen and B. Kutbay identify it as the Eumeneion mentioned in an inscription IvP no.

His view was subsequently contested by Rheidt, , figs. In Pergamon, even though Kraton's letter to the Attalistai written during the reign of Attalos II refers to a priest of the god Eumenes, there is no evidence that Eumenes was considered a god during his lifetime. Pergamon: lifetime deification In a decree honouring Attalos III for a military victory he is referred to as the "son of the god king Eumenes Soter" 1. This decree is significant not so much for the posthumous deification of Eumenes II as for the decision that a statue, five cubits high, representing a warrior clad in full armour and treading upon the spoils of the conquered, was to be dedicated in the temple of Asklepios Soter so "that the king Attalos III may dwell in the same temple with the god" In effect he was to be synnaos with Asklepios Soter.

Attalos III was thus the first Attalid king to depart from his predecessors' tradition and regard himself, or at least allow himself to be regarded, as the incarnation of a god. He did not assume the title "theos" but the decree implies open proclamation that he was divine.

In this respect he was exceptional within the Attalid dynasty. Art of Pergamon Copies The Attalids were ardent collectors and copyists of earlier works of art. For a comprehensive summary and good bibliographical references to studies on Pergamene art, including toreutics, pottery and terracottas, see Hansen According to a Delphic inscription, Attalos II also sent three Pergamene artists to copy paintings in Delphi dated to ca.


Photo by A. Faita 36 western rooms behind the north stoa, dating to the 2nd century BC Fig. Two narrow aegis strips, laid over each shoulder, are crossing each other on the breast and back. On the front intersection is a gorgoneion. The arrangement of the hair is also unusual as it is combed back from the forehead and high from the neck. The presence of holes in the temples indicates that the goddess wore a wreath.

In her left hand she was probably holding a spear and in her right either a Nike, an owl or a helmet. In the same room as this statue was another, also dating to the 2nd century BC, depicting Hera. This has often been compared to Venus Genetrix, to the Iris of the Parthenon's east pediment, to a Karyatid of the Erechtheion and to Alkamenes' Prokne. She wears a long chiton, holding in her raised right hand a spear. On her chest there are traces of the aegis and on her head she wears a polos consisting of two parts: a lower base-like part and an upper resembling a tower. Pantos noticed that the peculiar tower-like polos of the goddess resembled the crown of the Hellenistic Tyche of Antioch.

The introduction of Tyche elements to the Promachos type was interpreted by Pantos as the Pergamene effort to depict their goddess showing favour to the city of Pergamon and the king. Among the earliest artists who worked at Philetairos' court were two Athenians, Nikeratos and Phyromachos. Nikeratos celebrated the king's victory over the Gauls at Delphi BC in works of bronze, some of which were later set up on Delos by someone called Sosikrates l6I Winter , no.

II-V; A. Zur Identifizierung des meistgertihmten phidiasischen Werkes und seiner Oberlieferung", in Festschrift fur Thuri Lorenz zum Geburtstag, ed. Erath, M. Lehner and G. Schwarz Vienna: Phoibos, For other identification theories see Hansen, and notes. Faita AvP 7,, no. Ussing, Pergamos. Seine Geschichte und Monumente Berlin-Stuttgart Triltsch , n. Wasmuth Pantos , , pi. Other famous sculptures from Pergamon include: a group depicting the punishment of Marsyas, from which several copies of the victim survive showing him suspended by the wrists from a tree-trunk; the erotic symplegma of Kephisodotos now lost ; a hermaphrodite statue now in Istanbul; and the Prometheus group now in Berlin depicting Herakles freeing Prometheus in the presence of the mountain god Kaukasos Fig.

IvP ; see also Hansen, n 4 on other works of Nikeratos in Pergamon. Pliny On the date of Phyromachos see Chapter 1 n For the epigraphic evidence testifying to the presence of more non-Pergamene artists working in the city see Chapter 1 pp. Smith nos. For a recent discussion on the proposed identifications, see U. Andreae Odysseus: Archdologie des europdischen Menschenbildes Frankfurt Kl Schweitzer assigned the group to the sculptor Antigonos of Karystos see below p.

His hypothesis however, is unfounded; J. Schweitzer dated the group to the end of the 3rd century BC, and although it has frequently been challenged the date is more or less accepted; Pollitt n. See also B. These monuments include: the Round Base, situated in the centre of Athena's sanctuary on the Pergamene acropolis; the Long Base, probably situated at the south end of the Athena sanctuary; and the Lesser Gauls set up on the Athenian acropolis.

Unfortunately however, we only have marble Roman copies of individual figures see below on reconstruction. The dedicatory inscription of the Long base read: "King Attalos from the contests in war set up these thank offerings to Athena". The monument was lm in height and depth and perhaps 19m long. Pollitt 85; Ridgway, ; A. As the originals do not survive and we have only scattered Roman marble copies, scholars see below have found it difficult to come up with a universally acceptable theory for the reconstruction of either monument.

Some information about their composition can be deduced from very brief descriptions in Pliny the Elder The former in particular states that Epigonos' mastery and craftsmanship was especially evident in his trumpeter and in the infant "miserably caressing its dead mother". That these statues also formed part of the Long Base is possible, as Polybios states that in the Celtic armies were innumerable trumpeters and hom-blowers and the women and children accompanied the men on their campaigns.

The Roman marble copies in our possession, which are used in the various theories of reconstruction are: the Dying Trumpeter in the Capitoline Museum Fig. Schober reconstructed the suicidal group, the Dying Trumpeter and two other hypothetical figures on the small Round Base Fig.