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The author chose to focus very little on himself, sticking instead to a detailed chronicle of contemporary events. His memoirs are deeply historical, and surprisingly impersonal, quite unlike other books of ricordi and ricordanze produced at the same time. The tone of the daily account varies. Cerretani sometimes takes the position of the man in the street, speaking broadly for public opinion. At the same time, the Ricordi assumes the tone of an insider, a figure closely tied to current events and with access to the closed circles in politics and society.
Given that Cerretani had served in both the republic and Medicean regimes in the first decades of the sixteenth century, we should not be surprised by this access. While he has praise for the broadly based government of the first republic , he is also sharply critical of its leading figures, Soderini in particular. He considers himself a supporter of the frate , but his support is qualified at times, particularly with regard to the Savonarolan movement at large.
Placing himself and his uncle in a list of supporters, the author includes his father as an opponent of the frate. Consequently the Ricordi certainly provides rich material for literary and psychoanalytic study. For historians, the very depth of detail makes the Ricordi an extremely important source on events of this period. It sheds further light on the components of a newly fashioned Medici power, the players, disputes, and negotiations involved, as well as contemporary attitudes toward the regime.
In this respect, they complement a host of already published chronicles, including those of Biagio Buonnacorsi, Piero Parenti, Bartolomeo Masi, Luca Landucci, and the well-known aphoristic ricordi of Francesco Guicciardini in providing a portrait of that age. Cerretani may have composed his memoirs in the manner that Marin Sanudo drafted his Diarii simply to serve as a notebook for a later work of history.
Consequently, his infrequent personal references may have been an aid to later recollection. However, the appearance of a first-person narrator also suggests that Cerretani wanted to insert himself in a history of Florentine affairs. The Dialogo is often cited as a source on political events in Florence and on perspectives regarding Savonarola from to Yet its content moves further afield, touching also on trendy intellectual issues of the day: Luther, Erasmus and Reuchlin, cabalism and astrology.
Moreover, its presentation in the form of dialogue is both unique and significant. The author turned to dialogue, as he writes in his preface, to find "nuovo modo allo scriverle" 4 , namely, the events that had occurred since the return of the Medici to Florence in Through dialogue, he was able to present a variety of perspectives on the recent past, perspectives that include both the Savonarolan and Medicean sides of the story. The text itself is a conversation set within a series of narrative frames.
At the outset, a character called Bartolomeo, presumably portraying the author, appeals to two fictional interlocutors to recount a past conversation. These characters, named Girolamo and Lorenzo, immediately bring to mind the famous figures of Savonarola and Il Magnifico. Girolamo and Lorenzo agree to replay their discussion for Bartolomeo, and thus a second narrative frame begins. These three enjoy a prolonged discussion before the third narrative frame commences with Girolamo and Lorenzo participating in a spirited dinner conversation with Rucellai and Francesco Guicciardini, then papal governor at Modena.
All four men are Florentine. Although some aspects of their conversation touch on ultramontane affairs, the bulk of the history under discussion relates to their native city. During the roadside meeting, the emphasis is on current events of European scope. Girolamo and Lorenzo describe their travels north over the past eight years, following their departure from Florence in Girolamo explains the cabala which he has studied in Frankfurt with Reuchlin, and discusses the appearance, demeanor, and to a lesser extent the ideas of Erasmus and Luther.
Giovanni Rucellai, who had participated in the plot to restore the Medici to Florence in , agrees to narrate events for his audience, but he requests the input of all speakers, notably Girolamo, whose Savonarolan tendencies are bound to run counter to his own. Girolamo and all the conversants agree to pool their differing views of the past.
Guicciardini even reassures his guests that their views will remain off the record In this manner, the speakers develop a collective account of events up to Their dialogue is a unique approach to representing history. The emphasis is social and collaborative: the speakers seem to expect disagreement, even to welcome it. Since they differ fundamentally in their political and social outlooks, some disagreement does occur.
Nonetheless, the tacit assumption of their talk is that truth can only follow the open airing of different perspectives. They find also room for agreement. In general, the genial disagreement contributes to a picture of the Savonarolan movement and their relations with other optimates in the city. Perhaps one thing they shared in common was their disappointment at the fall of the Republic in We witness this sentiment in Girolamo and Lorenzo, who on that year chose to leave Florence rather than submit to the Medici regime. Writing the Dialogo in , Cerretani captures the pessimism of a Savonarolan movement with little hope of a return to their Grand Council and broad-based government.
Particularly in the Dialogo but also in the Ricordi , Cerretani remains an elusive figure. Berti does little to illuminate his past, or to shed light on the common threads of arguments between the two texts. Neither edition includes a biographical summary. Footnotes are sparse, limited generally to diacritical comments. No doubt, this was a deliberate strategy by Berti, who aimed to produce texts corresponding as much as possible to the original manuscript versions. For those wanting to know more about Cerretani, there remains the copiously annotated version of the Dialogo , edited by Raul Mordenti Using the same scribal copy of the late s that Berti also uses, Mordenti offers an edition peppered with explanatory footnotes and accompanied by a thorough introduction and bibliography.
In her versions of the Dialogo , for instance, she maintains the same paragraph breaks used in the manuscript, whereas Mordenti has inserted chapter breaks and even chapter titles of his own invention.
In a quick comparison between the manuscript and the published edition, this reviewer has found at least two lines that the editor had skipped; no such comparison was made for the Ricordi. Nevertheless, Berti has produced useful editions of valuable historical sources, preserving both the form and spirit of the manuscripts in the process. Collected Letters of a Renaissance Feminist.
Diana Robin. Chicago: U of Chicago P, This book is part of a valuable series, edited by Margaret L. King and Albert Rabil, Jr. The editor and translator of the present volume has distilled a biography of Cereta from evidence found in these letters. The lively prose translation will appeal to specialists and non-specialists alike. Diana Robin has nicely identified classical and contemporary humanist sources, motifs, and even lexicon that Cereta used. Many of the parallels to The Family could be considered conventional humanist topoi, but their frequency, language, and co-presence with letters addressed to Alberti family members should not pass by unremarked.
Apart from sketchy comments in the footnotes, the "edition" lacks a critical apparatus. There are no descriptions of the two extant manuscripts, whose readings differ, and no discussion of how the manuscripts and the Tomasini edition Padua, are related. Robin should have identified a base text and included a summary discussion of the textual relationships among the witnesses.
Some sentences found only in Vat. Could Marc. Cereta herself refers to "the final draft. The diligent reader is also perplexed by the inconsistent choices of titles for the letters. Footnotes explain that Robin has retitled certain letters and that the Vatican manuscript had an index with titles.
Were these written by a contemporary book owner, by a modern librarian cataloguing the codex, or were they assigned by Cereta herself? Why do two dedicatory epistles and an epilogue appear in this edition as items 4, 6, and 5, respectively? Dates at the ends of letters reveal their chronology, and footnotes somewhat inconsistently give the order of the individual letters in each exemplar. However, the original arrangement of the contents is not easily discernible.
Yet the "Dialogue on the Death of an Ass" is now found at the end of the volume, almost as an afterthought. Robin should at least offer a statement justifying her rationale for her reordering and should clearly show in parentheses the original order. I do not wish these criticisms to detract from the inherent worth of this translation.
Cereta employed many predictable humanist tropes and relied on well-known classical sources as her male counterparts did, but in numerous passages a startlingly original female voice emerges. Space does not permit a complete discussion of the metaphors and passages particular to Cereta, but these include: a homology of embroidery and writing; vividly detailed descriptions of nature, birds, and animals; friendship as a plant which must be cultivated; passages of sincere piety; and eye-witness "war memoirs" which are more poignant than the drier pacificism of male humanists.
There are remarkable glimpses into Renaissance domesticity, such as a birthing scene within the circle of women attending the mother. In several letters, the young widow laments the death of her husband and even hints at the resulting economic and erotic deprivations this loss represented to a woman of her era. Classical antiquity and mythology are present, but Cereta suppresses elements of rape or incest to put a positive spin on her ancient female characters.
In an innovative description of a Hades-like underworld, Cereta adopts the role of a female Orpheus seeking her dead spouse. Recurrent, classically inspired images of Furies, madwomen, and female monstrosities suggest the suppressed rage Cereta felt as a woman whose considerable intellectual powers were too tightly contained by her society. Elsewhere, she fends off polemical attacks on her work, comparing herself to a lion, a tigress, and a she-wolf. This book traces the development of the episode in which a traveling knight, sometimes accompanied by his lady, arrives at a castle and is asked to abide by a strange, often unjust custom.
In particular, Ross sets out to demonstrate how these "nuanced narratives explore the social limits of order, violence, justice, civility, and political conformity" xiii. In moving from medieval to Renaissance, and from French to Italian to English, Ross aims to show how the episodes reflect changes in the function of custom and the authority of the past, related in part to two factors: "first, the transmutation of oral law into written law, and second, the transition from a French culture of customs to one which followed Roman or civil law and then on to England, a common law country" Combining a perceptive reading of romance with an extensive background in natural and customary law, Ross asks new questions about old texts, and he thereby enriches our own reading of romance.
While the early chapters leave some questions unanswered, the analysis is original, thought-provoking, and stimulating throughout. Ross sees the Weeping Castle episode as "an allegory of social pressure" in which the victorious Tristan, rather than eliminating an evil custom of judicial murder, conforms to the custom by beheading the defeated lord and lady of the castle. A way out is found only when Galahaut returns from self-imposed exile in protest of the custom to challenge Tristan and avenge the murder of his parents. While Ross remarks that "Malory seems to have missed the point" 30 of the earlier text, he leaves the reader curious to hear more about the point Malory may have been trying to make.
At the same time, by focusing attention on the serious issues at stake in this fictional form, Ross entices the reader to go back and reread these medieval narratives in a more probing way. The underlying premise of the next section is that "the Italians developed a notion of civility to counteract a rigid social system increasingly dominated by foreigners during the sixteenth century" He examines a "custom of the castle" episode in Boiardo and Ariosto, the two masters of romance epic in the Italian Renaissance.
Here, too, his analysis engenders additional questions. If Boiardo portrays Ranaldo negatively as getting caught up in the cycle of violence, does he also indicate how the knight should have reacted when attacked by the mob? More generally, what is Boiardo saying about appropriate responses to foul customs? Although Bradamante is powerless to overturn a foul custom, she can be granted an exception through witty reasoning backed by martial prowess. Whereas in the first two chapters Ross tended to isolate single episodes, here he sustains his argument by comparing variations on the "custom of the castle" theme that stretch across The Faerie Queene.
Further, he identifies an evolution within the poem itself. Whereas in the first half Spenser "generally looks to the distant past for those values that would fashion a gentleman to the ideals of chivalry," in the second installment he "seems to have struggled more openly with the relationship between social practice and values" Ross provides fresh and provocative readings of Hamlet and Macbeth , with additional insights into As You Like It , Twelfth Night , and the history plays, as well as an appendix on King Lear and Othello.
Ross cuts across temporal, spatial, and linguistic boundaries and brings philosophy, anthropology, socio-political history, and ethics to bear in his interpretation of chivalric fiction. Readers may find that the book leaves out their favorite "custom of the castle" episode which may or may not conform to the evolution that Ross traces. But this is really not the point. Did Boiardo, Ariosto, and Tasso consciously attempt to camouflage the classical sources of their epic poems? Is the Orlando furioso really a harmonious montage of classical and medieval sources as critics have traditionally contended or is its success a result of a disharmony of these elements?
These are only a few of the challenging questions Dennis Looney addresses in his provocative study , Compromising the Classics: Romance Epic Narrative in the Italian Renaissance. In discussing these poets, Looney considers how "narrative artists in the Renaissance renovated the popular genre of romance through their imitation of classic epic" In response to these static categorizations, the study suggests how these three Ferrarese poets "compromised" classical models "by incorporating them into the narrative structures of their vernacular poems" In doing so, the poets overcame, to some extent, the distinction between classical and medieval models in the construction of their narrative.
While some readers may find these diverse connotations confusing at times, Looney provides numerous examples to illustrate his meaning. The result is what Looney terms "the ambiguous generic status of the Furioso " Thus the critic prefers the term "romance-epic" over the more traditional "epic poem" to highlight the dual nature of these poetic works. In doing so, the poet utilized many of the same narrative devices that appear in the Innamorato.
Many of the sources which worked best for the Furioso are those that "straddle the realms of the classical epic and romance" The use of Ovid in particular allowed Ariosto simultaneously to allude to other narrative paradigms in his romance-epic and intentionally defy the neat generic categories of epic and romance.
Compromising the Classics expands and problematizes the traditional interpretation of literary references in romance-epic poetry, particularly with respect to the Orlando Furioso. Michael J. La fine degli incanti. Vicende del poema epico-cavalleresco nel Rinascimento. Milano: Francoangeli, Dialogue on the Infinity of Love.
Rinaldina Russell and Bruce Merry. Chicago: Chicago UP, In Giuseppe Zonta published a critical edition of the text, which was reprinted and edited by Mario Pozzi in and Russell begins her introduction by remarking on the uniqueness and originality of this dialogue. The "right" to philosophize, or "the power of defining and naming," belonged unquestionably to men, Gerda Lerner affirms in The Creation of Feminist Consciousness Oxford: Oxford UP, , 5. The "dialogic" genre, although lacking a theory of its own, was not associated with women writers, who were encouraged to prove their literary talent in devotional and love poetry.
This is Moderata Fonte who discusses, among other subjects, the different kinds of human "love" in Il merito delle donne , written between and published in In fact she grounds the male-female bond on natural drives and mutual pleasure of body and soul, and perceives no separation between sensual and spiritual love. Nancy K. The Catholic Church, in fact, reacted with forceful moral and religious conservatism to the Protestant Reformation.
It is noteworthy that, although women did not write dialogues, within male-authored dialogues, "female interlocutors guaranteed by their sex the right to be decorously ignorant. By the end of the discussion, in fact, readers have no choice but to accept the one conception of love shaped by the character Tullia throughout the dialogue. As Russell points out, the tension present in the dialogue does not reside in the dichotomy of opinions but in the difference of "temperament, mental idiosyncrasies and style of speech" 40 of the two main characters.
La piazza universale di tutte le professioni del mondo. Torino: Einaudi. La piazza universale di tutte le professioni del mondo di Tomaso Garzoni fu pubblicata per la prima volta nel e fu ristampata una trentina di volte prima del ; fu tradotta in tedesco, in latino e adattata in spagnolo. La ricerca delle fonti offre un campione impareggiabile di quel fenomeno della riscrittura del secondo Cinquecento fenomeno recentemente sistemato da Cherchi nel suo Polimatia di riuso Roma, Bulzoni ; spiega in modo definitivo la supposta "erudizione" di Garzoni, e in moltissimi casi consente di sanare il testo o di spiegarlo in modo che sarebbe altrimenti impossibile.
La parte introduttiva contiene due saggi. Collina p. XCI sgg. Ogni tanto sorge qualche dubbio. Ad esempio lo "spartanamente" che si legge a p. Avrei corretto a p. In ogni modo, stando a quel che si dichiara a p. Ne voglio ricordare uno di Cherchi, il quale a p. Sono della "macule veniali", e con Orazio mi piace ripetere: "Ubi plura nitent non ego paucis offendar maculis, quas aut incuria fudit aut humana parum cavit natura" Ars poetica , sgg.
Selected Letters of Alessandra Strozzi. Bilingual edition. Berkeley, CA: U. This latest publication of the Biblioteca Italiana is a translation of 35 among the surviving letters by a Florentine widow of the fifteenth century. The book consists of an introduction, facing Italian and English translation, notes to the English translation by letter number, a bibliography, and an index. The introduction is primarily historical. It contains a useful discussion of historiography and changes in approach to history in recent years, leading to an interest in its personal side.
There are two little problems which stumped me between the introduction and letters. First, it is not always clear who is writing the letters. Are there differences in letters when she personally is writing as opposed to having letters written? It would be interesting to know. Furthermore, the actual number of letters was unclear until consulting the original edition. The back cover notes 72 total letters; Gregory mentions 73 1 ; again, she also mentions 73 7 , yet on the same page speaks of the "thirty-seven letters which are not included" when she translates 35, which would make I presume the confusion is due to the extra letter printed as an appendix to the reprint.
The introduction therefore is historical and addresses a primarily non-Italian-speaking audience. I was unable to consult either the originals in the Archivio Fiorentino di Stato or reprint of the Guasti edition which contains an extra letter to compare the text. Neither Bianchini nor Gregory comments at any length upon the language; Gregory comments briefly upon the style and punctuation 8. This edition is clearly not intended for use by those specifically studying the language, which makes sense since it is a translation. The facing English translation includes a summary of the content before each letter; where paragraphs are omitted, the translator specifies how many and summarizes the sections omitted.
The explanatory notes are exclusively in the English portion, not the Italian. Political concerns appear as well, with encoded names in 2 letters to avoid being understood by those reading letters 21, , The letters are of interest because of the political situation: fifteenth-century Florence, living conditions, and also how close ties are in family business - they are almost a clan, with a strong sense of honor and dishonor. Throughout the spellings are British - e.
Gregory differs from the original in dating the letters according to modern convention, that is, beginning the new year at January 1 where Alessandra began with April 1. This might cause some confusion when consulting the Italian editions. The notes contain explanations of political situations, social conventions, and complete names of those mentioned. Locations are also given for smaller villages and family villas.
All distances are in kilometers, which mean little to many American readers. The references are to the English translation alone, but this is closely spaced to follow the Italian so that a reader wishing to follow the Italian can easily place the notes. A few appendices would have been helpful: a map for small towns near Florence e.
Though Prato and Pistoia will be familiar to most readers, the smaller sites are not. Family trees would also have been handy; it is easy to lose track of all the Strozzis. The bibliography is selected, containing both textual and historical items. Otherwise the bibliography is a good starting point for research specifically on Alessandra Strozzi. The index is quite good and useful with items of cultural interest, such as breast-feeding, as well as taxes, and naming of children.
It clearly reflects the interests of the translator in including such personal data and not excluding them to the benefit of names alone, an all-too-frequent practice in such works cf.
This translation is a departure of the Biblioteca Italiana series from the earlier ones. This work is a welcome addition to Medieval and Renaissance literature and culture courses. Atti della II giornata di studi muratoriani Vignola, 23 ottobre Muratori, IX. Olschki, Lodovico Antonio Muratori , one of the European founders of medieval history, enjoyed a well-deserved, international celebrity in the eighteenth century. Bonnard, New York: Funk and Wagnalls, , In addition to his monumental contributions to medieval studies, Muratori, who was a Catholic parson, deserves to be remembered as a source of inspiration to the philosophy of the Enlightenment.
Girolamo Tartarotti , who waged a memorable battle against magic, "was very pleased to discover that Muratori. Woolf, tr. Corsi, New York: UP, , Ethel F. Robertson, , on whom see I. Muratori" These contributions are introduced by a short "Premessa" signed by Capucci. The volume has a very useful index of names which also includes titles of works.
Battistini, the leading Italian scholar of autobiographical and biographical studies, is the ideal guide to introduce the reader to the cultural background. In his Nichomachean Ethics 4, a , Aristotle dissuaded people from writing about themselves. He was followed by Cicero, Dante, and Petrarch. The autobiographical genre, which reached its full development only toward the end of the eighteenth century, was still a typical hybrid of biography and autobiography, yet its development had begun.
Ruschioni, Milano: Marzorati, , vol. Lecco: Periplo, Eppure, in tempi non certo benevoli verso le donne e le scrittrici in particolare, questa moglie e madre di famiglia appassionata di letteratura, intrattenne rapporti epistolari con intellettuali di rango. Basti, tra tutti, un nome: quello di Benedetto Croce. Trentenne Lydia conosce, tramite la baronessa Thea von Stern, un giovane tenente degli usseri, il Conte Riccardo Keptsky. Quali sono gli ingredienti di questo romanzo diviso in due o meglio tre parti?
Ma parlavamo di romanzo bi- o tripartito. La giovane e viziata Lydia si affaccia sul palcoscenico del bel mondo, fermamente decisa a ritagliarsi una fetta di ammiratori. Pirandello e i classici: Da Euripede a Verga. Firenze: Cadmo, Franco Zangrilli. Torino: SEI, Nel secondo capitolo Zangrilli affronta i rapporti tra Pirandello e la letteratura greca, tutta intrisa di tensione umoristica anche nella descrizione dei paesaggi.
E lo stesso vale per i personaggi plautini, non importa quanto questi autori classici siano coscienti o meno della natura umoristica della loro ispirazione. Spesso si tratta di personaggi maturi, avvezzi alla lettura, alla riflessione filosofica, alla discussione, magari arzigogolata. Dopo i due brevissimi capitoli "Il femminile" e "Il matrimonio", si arriva al capitolo finale, "Viaggio". Strumenti di filologia pirandelliana. Ravenna: Longo Editore, Il libro di Paola Casella si divide in tre parti. La seconda parte del libro raccoglie alcuni saggi inediti di Pirandello, apparsi su varie riviste in un arco di tempo che va dal al In attesa della nuova edizione mondadoriana dei saggi, curata da Alfredo Barbina, anche questo contributo, per quanto modesto, ha la sua importanza.
Per quanto certamente non esaustiva, la "giunta" proposta da Paola Casella colma una notevole lacuna nella bibliografia critica curata da Alfredo Barbina, ritenuta strumento indispensabile per chi si occupa di studi pirandelliani. Pirandello si sofferma su questo testo, dandone un sommario piuttosto dettagliato. I saggi coincidono quindi con un momento cruciale della vita di Pirandello. Ed infatti i saggi fanno luce su entrambi gli aspetti del pensiero pirandelliano.
Questi ultimi tendono ad analizzare i fatti quotidiani alla luce di concetti "astratti" quali, ad esempio, la lotta di classe. Tutti e tre i saggi riproposti nel volume riconfermano la tecnica tipica di Pirandello, che tendeva sempre a riciclare idee e talvolta interi paragrafi di saggi precedenti. Lo stesso succede anche in questi articoli degli anni venti, come mostra Paola Casella nelle sue note, che rimandano con precisione a saggi scritti da Pirandello quindici o venti anni prima.
Pirandello and His Muse. The Plays for Marta Abba. Gainesville: UP, Though she cites other critics , Bini bases her views largely on the published correspondence between the Maestro and his young muse. In developing her argument, Bini repeats the radical feminist contention that procreation is exclusive to women. That is true, of course, only in the narrowest sense.
Other inaccuracies: Bini states that Catholic tradition condemns the flesh, but strictly speaking it only censures the sins of the flesh. She also asserts that in Catholic tradition the central figure becomes the Virgin Mary, an assumption that is simply not true, since the preeminence of Christ has never been in doubt. Here and elsewhere in the work, Bini speaks of the "psychological blackmail" that Pirandello employed against these women for personal gain.
The Sicilian dramatist, however, expresses faith in language that is honest and authentic. In this work Tuda represents Marta and both male characters, young Sirio and old Giuncano, represent Pirandello. As Bini sees it, Pirandello and Marta, his muse, created together new characters, new works, and in a word gave birth to new life. The protagonist herself is named Marta. It seems that in having conceived a strong character such as Marta, Pirandello believed in the power of woman as a superior being.
Here she also states that the first two myths Pirandello wrote for Marta are "a celebration of the feminine" The first one, La nuova colonia , , is a metaphor of his identification with the mother figure, La Spera, who is a sort of Earth Mother. The second one, Lazzaro , , has as its protagonist Sara, who also can be seen as an Earth Mother. In both dramas Marta Abba starred in the leading role. Bini also reveals how Pirandello used psychological blackmail to have Marta write to him in Berlin, where he was composing Come tu mi vuoi.
By making Marta part and parcel of the creative process, Pirandello supposedly overcame the division between mind and body, and between the sexes. She, a young woman associated with Pirandello, was an easy target for critics, and therefore Pirandello encouraged her and strengthened her resolve to perfect her art. According to Bini, by she had become a collaborator of the author or, better yet, her task was that of continuing the creative process.
That her collaboration with Pirandello was substantive is, in my opinion, grossly exaggerated, despite what the Sicilian author himself, who was hopelessly in love, tried to make Marta believe. The plot centers on the clash between a spiritual world that of the theater and the materialistic world of today. Bini here opines that Pirandello never completed the work, in order perhaps to put off his own end. Marta herself seems to have believed or perhaps wanted others to believe that she co-authored the play.
According to her, Pirandello was now creating with Marta the central character of Trovarsi The leading character is Donata Genzi, who represents Marta. Both character and actress live for art, with art triumphing over life. In the concluding pages, "An Afterthought," Bini points out that the scope of this study was to separate Pirandello the man from Pirandello the artist and to show how the latter redeems the former.
As Bini understands the situation, Pirandello appropriated metaphorically the power of woman and gave birth to immortal works. I also find "The Wheel-barrow" n2 erroneously hyphenated. Among other misspellings, probably attributable to the typist or typesetter, are several German words, e. Giovanni R. Bussino, Burbank, California. Robert S. Pasolini: Forms of Subjectivity. Oxford: Clarendon Press, Despite the vast criticism on Pasolini, and despite the profoundly interdisciplinary nature of his work, few critics have sought to analyze the interconnections linking his experimental forays in so many diverse media.
The challenge in reading Pasolini, therefore, has become to understand him whole, to try to grapple with the textual traces of his forays into so many diverse areas. Now, Robert S. Each part is introduced by a brief overview and declaration of intentions. This structure functions very well in organizing the diverse materials involved. Furthermore, his clear exposition of the critical tradition surrounding the poetry establishes points of reference from which scholars might wish to depart in future studies.
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Yet the third section of the book, devoted to cinema, gains from the cumulative effect of the preceding chapters. In this way, the critic brings the insights garnered in the other two realms to bear on the film work and the results are significant. Six interlocking aspects of film discourse are analyzed as channels which carry the work of subjectivity: authority and inscription; style and technique; genesis and intertextuality; metaphor; being and film-time; and spectatorship.
More important, he is able to bring a new perspective to bear on the film work itself. To track the subject of film in Pasolini is to track contours of anxiety" Because Pasolini framed his own return to prose as "an enquiry into subjectivity," Gordon argues that Petrolio "provides a vertiginous array of textual and discursive features to confirm, qualify, and re-articulate what has already been discerned in his journalism, poetry, and cinema" Given its synthesis of the scholarship involved, and the persuasiveness of its interpretive moves, this book will no doubt stand as a defining perspective on Pasolini for many years to come.
John P. Plotting the Past. West Lafayette: Purdue UP, Alba Amoia. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, Tuttavia, I promessi sposi rimangono un modello di romanzo storico tuttora valido, anche nel caso in cui il lettore contemporaneo non ne condivida la prospettiva provvidenziale.
La Della Colletta afferma che il romanzo di Lampedusa porta avanti il discorso manzoniano approfondendo gli schemi ideologici e psicologici che si intrecciano nella configurazione del passato storico. Nonostante la struttura formale de Il gattopardo segua la progressione temporale di un cinquantennio, la maggior parte dei capitoli narra di eventi che accadono in due anni, e tra alcuni capitoli esistono "buchi" temporali di molti anni. Inoltre, la voce narrante, attraverso commenti personali, ironie, informazioni prolettiche e extradiegetiche, stabilisce uno stretto legame tra gli eventi passati e la loro organizzazione e interpretazione presente.
Nel romanzo morantiano le sezioni storiche danno un resoconto degli eventi politici, mentre le parti narrative danno spazio ad una voce femminile che attua una revisione del discorso storiografico patriarcale. Come i personaggi di Manzoni, anche i personaggi della Morante sono antieroi, sono umili e passive vittime della Storia.
Ne La Storia una monumentale, ciclica e intersoggetiva nozione del tempo altera la nozione lineare, ovvero la nozione di un continuum storico che appare come una successione causale di eventi politici. Il nome della rosa , infatti, esibisce un prologo e un epilogo che contengono un testo organizzato secondo una progressione cronologica di sette giorni e di sette successive rivelazioni.
Ma il modello apocalittico basato come nella Bibbia sulla perfetta adesione tra eventi e tempo che Eco usa, viene smantellato dalla presenza di Adso come narratore. La Della Colleta sottolinea che, oltre al modello apocalittico-biblico apertamente sovvertito da Eco, lo scrittore organizza il suo racconto sfruttando anche lo schema lineare della detective story. Rivisitare il passato diventa per Eco un modo per capire meglio il presente. Il volume potrebbe essere un testo ideale per un corso introduttivo undergraduate sulle undici scrittrici e anche lo stile, scorrevole e informativo, si presta ad una facile lettura.
Montale lettore di Dante e altri studi montaliani. Roma: Bulzoni, Ma entriamo ora direttamente nella materia in questione. In questo contesto Cavallini esplora memoria e oblio offrendo una visione prospettica dei diversi contributi che interpretano e discutono il richiamo memoriale e il suo significato in Montale. Il motivo ontologico riaffiora nel terzo studio dove Cavallini indaga "Il trionfo della spazzatura", una composizione apparsa nel Diario del Nel secondo sono inclusi dodici commenti di altrettante liriche di Montale rappresentative delle raccolte principali.
Welle and Ruth Feldman. Urbana: U of Illinois P, I would like to break the opacity, the convention of the Veneto dialect which, like all dialects, is frozen in an emotionless and tireless cipher, and try to restore freshness to it, render it more alive, penetrating, mercurial, keen, giving preferences perhaps to a Ruzantian Veneto dialect or attempting a capricious promiscuity between that of Ruzante and the Veneto dialect of Goldoni. Better yet, rediscovering archaic forms or indeed inventing phonetic and linguistic combinations.
His involvement with dialects continued in the eighties with the publication of Idioma , the last book of his trilogy, a tribute to the ancient civilization of his region but of all Italian regions as well which has now vanished, but also a long meditation on the nature and meaning of language itself. It remains laden with the vertigo of the past, of the megacenturies in which it extended, infiltrated, subdivided, recomposed itself.
Lighting Fields 3 - IT/EN by Artemide - Issuu
Dialect announces itself as the vague site in which langue and parole tend to identify themselves, and every territoriality vanishes into those that are contiguous" But how does one translate a pseudo-Venetian or solighese dialect? Are there insurmountable obstacles to be reckoned with? The dialect cannot be rendered with Standard English. It would be necessary to find some patois or slang that nevertheless was rather known in the Anglophone area" xvi. When it comes to dialects, almost everyone instantly assumes that they are a deviation , a non-standard form of speech that requires a non-standard form of translation.
But this is true only with respect to the national standard, with which the conflict is always latent. For the people who speak it and all dialect speakers understand this , dialect is the only natural way of communicating, and to translate it into non-standard English or slang would be a gross violation, a misconstruction of the nature of dialect.
The problem of deviation becomes very real and practically insoluble only in a multilingual context, i. Welle and Feldman have translated these dialect poems into standard colloquial English with both accuracy and fluidity, always mindful of the different linguistic registers and rhythmical variations, and deserve praise for a difficult job well done. Take for example one of the poems of the Recitative , where rhyme is used throughout:. Rhyme of course is a tyrant, and the translators no doubt felt they had to discard it in many instances for the sake of maneuverability.
La poesia in Italia nel Marina di Minturno: Caramanica, Nella seconda parte del volume, "Incontri", troviamo invece una serie di interviste che ci avvicinano direttamente ad alcuni protagonisti della scrittura e della lingua poetica. La prima intervista a Roberto Denti tratta della poesia per i ragazzi, mentre le altre due interviste a Fabio Doplicher e Annalisa Cima sintetizzano lo stato della poesia oggi in Italia e riflettono sui lasciti montaliani.
Nella parte centrale di "Inediti" lo stesso Manacorda presenta una lettera inedita di Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. Chiavari: Edizioni Libreria, Esile, interessante collezione, questa. La terza volta che la voce flebile, ma sensibile di Brusco si fa sentire. E a onor del vero certi momenti di Brusco sono davvero intensi, validi: quel suo lirico smemorarsi, quel suo tono di preghiera, come parlando da un ritiro francescano, quasi frutto di un lungo percorso religioso. La contemplazione rischia di trasformarsi in una sorta di pratica ascetica fine a se stessa, in una censura al fare, in una ideologia surrettiziamente frenante follia andare verso lidi stanieri.
Cambridge: UP, l Because we are living in the intellectual age defined and shaped by Umberto Eco, and because this major cultural figure continues to produce important works at a prodigious rate, it is difficult yet crucial for us to stand back and take his measure. The shift from structuralism to semiotics is once such pivotal point. Eventually, Eco would come to a realization of the limits of theory itself, of the confines of any totalizing system of explanation.
Hence "his search for a universal theory of human culture through the methodology of semiotics, the major focus of his work during the ls, has now become more narrowly focused upon the theory and practice of fiction. To paraphrase his own words, upon reaching maturity, Eco discovered that there were matters which must be narrated when they could not be resolved by theorizing" Accordingly, Eco emerges as a brilliant mediating figure, able to bridge the gap between high and mass culture, between theory and fiction, between Italian provincialism and the European avant-garde, and most important, between the Academy and the general public.
In philosophical terms, Bondanella places Eco outside the reigning polarities of twentieth-century Italian thought, dominated by Crocean idealism on the one hand and Marxist materialism on the other. While insisting on a politically progressive interpretation of texts as vitally linked to their historical contexts, and arguing for the role of the intellectual as the creator of a critical consciousness in the mass public, Eco never embraced a social realist approach to literary production. But the Crocean dismissal of all ideological concerns in favor of an analysis focused on pure lyrical creativity poesia to the exclusion of non- poesia was anathema to him.
One of the many virtues of this volume is that it does not shrink from the daunting philological problem of establishing the texts themselves, since often Eco modified his works in subsequent editions or translations. Umberto Eco and The Open Text is that rarest of achievements: an introduction which uses language accessible to non-initiates without being simplistic or reductive, while at the same time making a sophisticated and supremely valuable contribution to scholarship in the field. Luisa Quartermaine.
The translator speculates that one reason Morandini chose not to name Trieste directly in the novel is because "the Trieste of the novel reflects the fragmented personality of the protagonist, images her own crisis" viii. While the translator does well to connect the complex relationship between character and setting, inner world and outer world, she could have provided additional commentary to aid the reader. If Trieste is so central to Morandini, why not name it? English language readers may be frustrated by the abundance of explanatory footnotes in the novel rather than additional analysis in the Introduction.
Rather, we witness the existential anguish and painful alienation of a young woman who has apparently spent some time in a mental hospital. Here the dream world and quotidian reality conflate and merge, becoming indistinguishable. A language "never too realistic, its style develops through assonance, association, sounds, and colours.
Sassari , the second-largest city on Sardinia and the main center of the northern half of the island cabu de susu in Sardinian, capo di sopra in Italian , is located there. There are also two language islands , the Catalan Algherese -speaking community from the inner city of Alghero northwest Sardinia and the Ligurian -speaking towns of Carloforte , in San Pietro Island , and Calasetta in Sant'Antioco island south-west Sardinia. Sardinian has already been a standardized language since the Middle Ages, even if the process led to the emergence of the above-mentioned models of Logudorese and Campidanese.
However, some attempts have been made to introduce a single writing system for administrative purposes over the recent decades, but they have not been generally acknowledged by native speakers. The Regional Council Deliberations no. Its rules were published in by the Autonomous Region of Sardinia,  but were met with some criticism about their overall focus on the more conservative varieties, and was eventually not adopted by the regional Council.
The Regional Council Deliberation no. Their job involved a program of measures for the protection and promotion of the Sardinian language, by means of a guide to be used by the regional administration. This work does not refer to morphology and syntax, which is already fairly homogeneous,  and concerns itself primarily with spelling. Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name. Give us this day our daily bread, and forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors.
And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. Babbu nostru chi ses in chelu, Santificadu siat su nomine tou. Benzat a nois su rennu tou, Siat fatta sa boluntade tua, comente in chelu gai in terra. Dona nos oe su pane nostru de donzi die, Et perdona nos sos peccados nostros, Comente nois perdonamus a sos depidores nostros. Et no nos lesses ruer in tentatzione, Et libera nos dae male. Babbu nostu chi ses in celu, Santificau siat su nomini tuu. Bengiat a nosus su regnu tuu, Siat fatta sa boluntadi tua, comenti in celu aici in terra. Donasi oi su pani nostu de dogna dii, Et perdonasi is peccaus nostus, Comenti nosus perdonaus a is depidoris nostus.
Et no si lessis arrui in tentatzioni, Et liberasi de mali. Panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis hodie, et dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris. Padre Nostro, che sei nei cieli, Sia santificato il tuo nome. Dacci oggi il nostro pane quotidiano, E rimetti a noi i nostri debiti Come noi li rimettiamo ai nostri debitori. E non ci indurre in tentazione, Ma liberaci dal male.
Media related to Sardinian language at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the modern Romance language. For ancient Sardinian, see Paleo-Sardinian language. Romance language indigenous to the island of Sardinia. Language family.
Indo-European Italic Romance Sardinian. Linguistic map of Sardinia. Sardinian is yellow Logudorese and orange Campidanese. See also: History of Sardinia. See also: Paleo-Sardinian language and Nuragic civilization. See also: Corsica and Sardinia. See also: Sardinian medieval kingdoms. See also: Italian Republic and Sardinian autonomy and Language shift. See also: Logudorese dialect and Campidanese dialect. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. October Languages portal Italy portal. Ma dal punto di vista linguistico la questione assume un altro aspetto.
Antonio, Ludovico Antonio Antiquitates Italicae Moedii Evi , Mediolani, t. Ego iudice Mariano de Lacon fazo ista carta ad onore de omnes homines de Pisas pro xu toloneu ci mi pecterunt: e ego donolislu pro ca lis so ego amicu caru e itsos a mimi; ci nullu imperatore ci lu aet potestare istu locu de non n apat comiatu de leuarelis toloneu in placitu: de non occidere pisanu ingratis: e ccausa ipsoro ci lis aem leuare ingratis, de facerlis iustitia inperatore ci nce aet exere intu locu Ego iudigi Salusi de Lacunu cun muiere mea donna Ad elasia, uoluntate de Donnu Deu potestando parte de KKaralis, assolbu llu Arresmundu, priori de sanctu Saturru, a fagiri si carta in co bolit.
Et ego Arresmundu, l eba nd u ass o ltura daba su donnu miu iudegi Salusi de Lacunu, ki mi illu castigit Donnu Deu balaus a nnus rt bonus et a issi et a muiere sua, fazzu mi carta pro kertu ki fegi cun isus de Maara pro su saltu ubi si Maara, ki est de sanctu Saturru. Et apirus cummentu in su campaniu, ki fegir us , d'arari issus sas terras ipsoru ki sunt in su saltu miu et ll u castiari s u saltu et issus hominis mius de Sinnay arari sas terras mias et issas terras issoru ki sunt in saltu de ssus et issus castiari su saltu u i ssoru. Custu fegirus plagendu mi a mimi et a issus homi nis mius de Sinnay et de totu billa de Maara.
Fantasmi di #Expo2015. Un libretto e una camminata li dirotteranno!
Toccu de Kerarius et P. Marzu de Quartu iossu et prebiteru Albuki de Kibullas et P. Gregu, M. Corsu de sancta Ilia et A. Carena, G. Artea de Palma et Oliueri de Kkarda Siat et F. Anno dom. What frightens you? Have you never seen some people gathering? Oh, what an idiot shepherd! Nada mi su pastori de undi seis? The Preface, entitled Al giovanetto alunno , states the intention, already common to Porru, to publish a work dedicated to the teaching of Italian, through the differences and similarities provided by another language more familiar to the Sardinian subjects.
At the moment, Sardinian is used to make announcements, and to sing the songs of the Saints Goccius , some of them without any decency It is also necessary to eradicate the Sardinian dialect [ sic ] and introduce the Italian language in its place even for other reasons, which are not less important; that is, to civilize that nation [Sardinia], so that they are able to comprehend the Government's instructions and commands, In domos nostras no si faeddaiat atera limba. Gai, totus sos pitzinnos de 'idda, intraian in iscola abbistos e allirgos e nde bessian tontos e cari-tristos.
We did not speak any other language in our homes. And I began to know all the things of the world in the native language. Thus, the children of our village would come to school bright and happy, and walk out of school empty-headed and with a gloomy look on our faces. Il prof. Va dunque respinto il tentativo di considerare come unica soluzione valida per questi problemi una forzata e artificiale forma di acculturazione dall'esterno, la quale ha dimostrato e continua a dimostrare tutti suoi gravi limiti, in quanto incapace di risolvere i problemi dell'isola.
In ogni caso tali provvedimenti dovranno comprendere necessariamente, ai livelli minimi dell'istruzione, la partenza dell'insegnamento del sardo e dei vari dialetti parlati in Sardegna, l'insegnamento nella scuola dell'obbligo riservato ai Sardi o coloro che dimostrino un'adeguata conoscenza del sardo, o tutti quegli altri provvedimenti atti a garantire la conservazione dei valori tradizionali della cultura sarda. Il presidente del Consiglio on. Il Consiglio unanime approva le istanze proposte dal prof.
Cagliari, 19 Febbraio No sias isciau". Glottolog 3. Encyclopedia Britannica. Termini prelatini della lingua sarda tuttora vivi nell'uso. Retrieved 28 November De Concini, Wolftraud Le lingue dei sardi , p. To access the data, click on List by languages, Sardinian, then scroll to "Sardinian language use survey".
Story of Language. Atlas of Romance languages. Lingue sotto il tetto d'Italia. Le minoranze alloglotte da Bolzano a Carloforte - 8. Il sardo ". Euskararen aztarnak Sardinian? Bilingualism and Linguistic Conflict in Romance. Walter de Gruyter. Hermann, Lipsia , 25 B, pag. Sostratismi e correlazioni sardo-albanesi Naples: Autorinediti, Atti della VI giornata camito-semtica e indoeuropea, I Convegno Internazionale di linguistica dell'area mediterranea, Sassari aprile , edited by Paolo Filigheddu, Cagliari, Corda, , pp.
Brockmeyer, , La Storia di Sardegna. Sassari, it: Carlo Delfino Editore. Quarterly Journal of Chinese Studies. Wescher e M. Manoscritti e lingua sarda , La memoria storica, p. Istoria de sa limba sarda , Ed. Domus de Janas, Selargius, pg. Fois, Cagliari, Cuec, , pp. Storia Linguistica Della Sardegna , pg. Le origini delle lingue neolatine , Patron, Bologna, pg.
Le lingue tagliate: storia delle minoranze linguistiche in Italia , Rizzoli, , pp. La scrittura in Sardegna dal nuragico ad oggi , Carlo Delfino Editore, p. Green Language and Philology in Romance , Mouton Publishers, p. Sardinia in Arabic sources ". Storia della Sardegna antica , Edizioni Il Maestrale, pp. XI, n. Cronaca medioevale sarda: i sovrani di Torres , , Astra, Quartu S.
Elena, p. And, since many Spaniards, both Aragonese and Catalan, and Italians immigrated to Sardinia, and keep doing so in order to trade, Spanish, Catalan and Italian are also spoken; so, a single people is able to hold a conversation in all these languages. However, those from Cagliari and Alghero usually speak their masters' language, Catalan, whilst the other people retain the genuine language of the Sardinians. Et quia Hispani plures Aragonenses et Cathalani et Itali migrarunt in eam, et commerciorum caussa quotidie adventant, loquuntur etiam lingua hispanica et cathalana et italica; hisque omnibus linguis concionatur in uno eodemque populo.
Caralitani tamen et Algharenses utuntur suorum maiorum lingua cathalana; alii vero genuinam retinent Sardorum linguam. De differentiis linguarum tum veterum tum quae hodie apud diversas nationes in toto orbe terraru in usu sunt , Sardorum lingua: pp. Sardiniae brevis historia et descriptio , CUEC, pg.
On the island are two main languages, the first in the cities and the latter out of their reach. People from the cities commonly speak Spanish, Tarragonese or Catalan, which they learnt from the Spaniards, who also occupy much of the official positions; the others, on the other hand, retain the genuine language of the Sardinians. Sunt autem duae praecipuae in ea insula linguae, una qua utuntur in civitatibus, et altera qua extra civitates.
Oppidani loquuntur fere lingua Hispanica, Tarraconensi seu Catalana, quam didicerunt ab Hispanis, qui plerumque magistratum in eisdem gerunt civitatibus: alii vero genuinam retinent Sardorum Linguam. Scelta di brani esemplari commentati e tradotti , , Cuec, Cagliari, p. Everyone else had his promotion forbidden, that's why the Italians who spoke Spanish badly tried to pass themselves off as Valencians to try to get promoted.
Una limba - sighit Garipa - chi de seguru bisongiat de irrichimentos e de afinicamentos, ma non est de contu prus pagu de sas ateras limbas neolatinas. A language - follows Garipa - which certainly needs a little enrichment and refinement, but is no less important than the other Neolatin languages". Casula, Francesco. Lepori, Dalla Spagna ai Savoia. Sardegna sabauda , v. I, Tip. Mercantile G. Doglio, Cagliari, p. Holland Academic Graphics. Limba Sarda 2.
It was unlikely that the functionaries could regard anything different as other than utter evil. They therefore proceeded to apply to Sardinia the same formulas of Piedmont. Era difficile che quei funzionari potessero considerare il diverso altrimenti che come puro negativo. E infatti essi presero ad applicare alla Sardegna le stesse ricette applicate al Piemonte. Guerci, Luciano Sardegna fra tante lingue , pp. Le lingue tagliate , Rizzoli, pg. Canto sacro-popolare in Sardegna , Oristano, S'Alvure, p.
Sardi, dialetti ". A lezione di limba dal gesuita catalano". Prima grammatica de' tre dialetti sardi , Cagliari [the volume can be found in Cagliari's University Library, Baille Collection, ms. Siamo nel , ancora a breve distanza dalla stagione calda della rivolta antifeudale e repubblicana, dentro il periodo delle congiure e della repressione. Kalaris: Reale Stamperia. Ispanu, Johanne Ortographia sarda nationale o siat grammatica de sa limba logudoresa cumparada cum s'italiana , pg. And just along the lines of what had been theorized and put into effect in favour of the Italian nation, that was successfully completing the process of linguistic unification by elevating the Florentine dialect to the role of "national language", so in Sardinia the long-desired "Sardinian national language" was given the name of "illustrious Sardinian".
Massimo Pittau, Grammatica del sardo illustre , Nuoro, pp. Sos discursos sacros in limba sarda , Bologna. La Sardegna durante il ventennio fascista , art. Folk festivals in Sardinia , Janus, p. Farinelli, The Invisible Motherland? Il Manifesto Sardo. Idee di Sardegna , Carocci Editore, pp. Sardegna Cultura. Catte Educazione bilingue in Sardegna: problematiche generali ed esperienze di altri paesi , Edizioni di Iniziative culturali, Sassari, pp. Messaggero Veneto. Campagna di boicottaggio contro l'editore Giunti". Paul Lewis, Gary F. Simons Lonely Planet Publications.
La prof. La scelta di Lia Obinu al liceo scientifico di Bosa". Retrieved Sardegna Oggi.
Archivio — La Nuova Sardegna. Casteddu Online. To access the data, click on List by languages, Sardinian, then scroll to "Sardinian in Italy". Intonation in Romance. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original PDF on E quali? Indagine socio-linguistica sulla lingua sarda.
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Sintassi, pg. Alberto G. Sardegna tra tante lingue: il contatto linguistico in Sardegna dal Medioevo a oggi. Cagliari: Condaghes, Roberto Bolognesi. The Hague: Holland Academic Graphics, Luigi Farina, Vocabolario nuorese-italiano e bocabolariu sardu nugoresu-italianu.
Eduardo Blasco Ferrer. Linguistica sarda: Storia, metodi, problemi. Storia della lingua sarda. Cagliari: Paleosardo: Le radici linguistiche della Sardegna neolitica. Berlin: Lucia Grimaldi, Code switching nel sardo — un segno di disintegrazione o di ristrutturazione socio-linguistica? Johannes Hubschmid, Sardische Studien , Bern, Michael Jones. London—NY: Routledge, , pp.
Michael Allan Jones. Sardinian Syntax. London—NY: Routledge, Italian translation: Sintassi della lingua sarda.